History of epidemiology
Epidemiology / / August 12, 2017
Epidemiology arose from observations of the spread of infectious diseases and interventions applied in human beings in the fight with them since ancient times.
In the age of the oldest formations man was helpless in the fight against infectious diseases.The reason for them, especially in the period of primitive society, people have seen in the action of evil supernatural forces.Hence, there is still something where surviving in modified form methods of coaxing and driving out evil spirits.In parallel with the measures based on the notion of the demonic nature of infectious diseases, applied and empirical methods of struggle, had to some extent rational character, such as withdrawal from unfavorable incidence areas.
Empirical methods of prevention and control of communicable diseases received a significant development in the period of the slave system.For example, in Egypt for control of fleas in the room used ash to repel rodents used balls of wool ihnemeona (predatory mammal), inspect the animals, ma
course, even undoubtedly reasonable preventive measures that have been applied in the past, still can not rule out the spread of infectious diseases.Of the major epidemics are worth mentioning "plague" Thucydides, "plague" of Antoninus and especially the "plague" of Justinian that covered a huge area.
In the era of feudalism rudiments of personal and social prevention of the ancient world were lost.Constant epidemic and especially the pandemic of plague in the XIV century, has remained in the memory of all peoples under the name "Black Death", encouraged physicians to develop preventive measures.In 1374 for the first time in Venice was applied quarantine.There was a ban on lepers attend church, bakery, mill use wells.By this time is the emergence in Europe of hospitals and shelters for lepers.In the next century Fracastoro (1478-1553) proved the doctrine of CONTAG and pointed to the patient a danger to others.
in Russia in the era of feudalism in the use of methods of prevention, our ancestors were their distinctive ways.Already in the XI century, we recognized the need to isolate patients with burial in special cemeteries the corpses of the dead from the epidemic of disease.From 1352 on the roads during the plague epidemics began to light fires.This measure was a kind of precursor to the quarantine.In 1552 outposts were first exhibited to exclude importation of plague infection in Moscow.They are widely used in the future.
internal quarantine began to use about 1510-1519 years.At the time it was strictly forbidden to visit the sick and read the burial of the dead.House in the case of residents of the death sealed up, and some houses in which there were sick, exposed positions.Starting from the XVI century, it has been paid great attention to obtaining information about the spread of infectious diseases in neighboring countries.The chronicles are also indications of the disinfection measures.
initial period of the development of capitalism was accompanied by endless wars, against which infectious diseases were widely spread, affecting the working masses, is in a difficult socio-economic conditions.At the same time, the "industrial revolution" gave a powerful impetus to the development of science and technology.Influenced by the work Sydenham (1624-1689) doctors have returned to the path of an objective study of infectious diseases.The eighteenth century was marked by the discovery of Jenner (1749-1823) method of vaccination against smallpox and classical studies Samoilovych DS (1744-1805) on the epidemiology and control measures with the plague.A significant step in that time in Russia was made to improve the quarantine system (gates on the roads, the prohibition of the ships on board which were sick, go to the harbor, couriers delay coming from disadvantaged plague areas), as well as on the organization of anti-epidemic measures (creationcommissions, regulations edition) and elimination of the consequences of epidemics (burial of corpses, cleaning and disinfection of premises).
At the end of the XIX century and beyond, thanks to the success of Microbiology at the most important epidemiological presentation was placed upon a solid scientific basis, and before vast epidemiology opened new horizons for objective research and practice.
brilliant pages in the history of microbiology and epidemiology entered Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Robert Koch (1843-1910).Large contributions were made and Russian scientists.With the name of Mechnikov (1845-1916) linked the doctrine of susceptibility and immunity.DI Ivanovsky (1864-1920) belongs to the undivided honor of the opening of viruses.SP Botkin (1832-1884) laid the foundations of the doctrine of infectious jaundice.GN Minh (1836-1896) and O. Mochutkovsky (1845-1903) as a result of the heroic self-infection experiments (the first - the blood of patients relapsing fever, the second - typhus) have shown that these diseases are pathogens in the blood.They were suggested to transfer the typhus and relapsing fever by blood-sucking arthropods.PF Borovsky (1863-1932) first discovered the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis.VK Vysokovich (1854-1912) discovered the ability of endothelial cells to capture and fixed microbes introduced into the blood;regardless of Vekselbauma he set the microbial etiology of cerebrospinal meningitis and the first in Russia had immunization against typhoid fever.With the name GN Gabrichevskogo (1860-1912) associated with the development serotherapy diphtheria and scarlet fever justification streptococcal etiology.IG Savchenko (1862-1932) used the enteral immunization against cholera.IA Deminsky (1864-1912) first showed the role of small gophers in the epidemiology of plague.DK Zabolotny (1866-1929), who is the founder of the national epidemiology, conducted the classic study on the epidemiology of plague, cholera and other diseases.Being sure of zoonotic nature of the plague, he brilliantly proved this abjection of tarbagan in 1911. With his name is associated with the creation of a modern system of control of communicable diseases.NN Klodnicki (1876-1938) first described the plague of a camel.LA Tarasevich (1863-1927) is credited with the organization of production of vaccines and serums.Martsinovsky (1874-1934) was one of the organizers of the anti-malaria services in our country.World famous study received EN Pavlovsky (1884-1965) on natural foci.KI Skryabin (born in 1879) created the doctrine of devastation.It is necessary to point out the research VA Bashenin (born in 1882) on the problem of leptospirosis and LV Gromashevskiy (born in 1887) - in the development of the doctrine of the mechanism of transmission of infectious agents.
For the development of the theory and practice of epidemiology have done much AY Alimov, AN Sysin, NF Gamaleia, I. Elkin, PF Zdrodovsky, NN Zhukov-Verezhnikov, IAI. Rogozin and other domestic researchers.
12 Aug, 2017