Fractures with radiation injuries : first aid
Traumatology / / May 12, 2016
main objective of providing first aid to the affected is the establishment of a dangerous dose of radiation.In the first 24 hours to diagnose and assess the severity of the condition is difficult to victims after radiation damage.After 48 hours, the clinical manifestations of radiation sickness let you have quite clearly assess the severity of lesions and to predict the possibility of modern means of treatment to achieve a positive result.
Fractures with combined radiation injuries are making significant adjustments to the clinic diagnosis and radiation sickness.Shock and blood loss camouflage signs of the primary reaction and significantly shorten the latent period of radiation sickness.With multiple fractures homeostasis irreversible more often.Surviving greatly disturbed bone regeneration processes, which leads to delayed consolidation (1.5-2 times), the formation of false joints, suppurative complications, deforming arthrosis.
First aid includes the following activities:
- stop external bleeding
- wound closure aseptic dressings;
- imposition of occlusive dressings on wounds with an open pneumothorax chest;
- transport immobilization at fractures of extremities, extensive wounds, burns, damage to major vessels, joints, traumatic toxicosis;
- anesthesia local and general;
- correct installation of the affected, warming, peace;
- resuscitation (when clinical death) indoor cardiac massage, mechanical ventilation;
- protection of respiratory and gastrointestinal tract against ingress of radioactive substances, conducting partial sanitization, clothes partial decontamination, administration of radioprotective agents.
focuses on the elimination of dangerous disorders of basic vital functions (respiratory, cardiovascular, excretory) arising as a result of direct mechanical destruction of vital organs (brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys), or as a result of shock and blood loss during multipleand combined injuries.This infusion therapy should be increased by 1.5 times, oxygen inhalation - in 2 times.
to protect the wound from secondary microbial contamination of sterile dressings used universal dressing packets, extensive wounds use large contoured dressings.
main way stop external bleeding a compressive bandage, which is applied in two stages: first, the pressure on the wound is performed by hand (with extensive wounds - two hands) through a sterile cloth for 10 min, then (after a stop or greatly reduce it) to the woundimpose additional sterile wipes and tight bandage segment injured limb long bandage.Apply tourniquet is only necessary when a strong arterial bleeding that can not stop the pressure bandage.
- Radiation sickness
- Treatment of fractures with radiation injuries
- fractures Treatment of complicated burns
Partial sanitization is performed by washing the exposed skin, mucous membranes, clean water eyes.Clothes deactivate it by shaking out, obmetaniya, washing.For the removal of radioactive substances from the gastrointestinal tract affected need to wash out the stomach, put a cleansing enema.It should be as soon as possible to enter the affected antibiotics.
complete sanitization carried out in the department of special treatment.In the process of sanitizing the wound does not reveal, replace only the upper layers of bandages.
When immobilization of the lower limbs and pelvis in severely affected should take into account the specific features of the course of radiation sickness (profuse diarrhea, the need for cleansing enemas, taking care of the perineum, and so on. N.).It is expedient to fix the lower limb srednefiziologicheskom position with ladder tires.