Traumatology / / May 04, 2016
Radiation injury manifested as radiation disease, the main cause of which in time of peace is external exposure during industrial accidents, which uses nuclear energy, in time of war - the explosion of nuclear weapons (for example - the explosions of atomic bombs in 1945 in Japan).For the development of acute radiation sickness rather short-term exposure to ionizing radiation at a dose of 1 Gy (100 rad).
main symptoms of radiation sickness
The clinical picture of radiation sickness distinguish cerebral form (for radiation dose greater than 50 Gy), intestinal (10-50 Gy) and medullary (1 -10 Gy).
Cerebral form directly affected the central nervous system, have affected impaired coordination, seizures appear, disappear consciousness amid a sharp oppression of all vital functions of imminent death occurs in the first day.
intestinal form is characterized by a primary lesion of the gastrointestinal tract, in victims having uncontrollable vomiting, bloody diarrhea, rapid dehydration, death occurs within
in the pathogenesis of medullary form that is treatable, the main role is played by a violation of hematopoiesis, as a result of developing lymphopenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia.For the clinical picture is characterized by hemorrhage, suppression of immune-biological protective reaction, the development of infectious complications.According to the severity of the pathological process is isolated I, a light degree (irradiation dose of 1-2 Gy), II of, the average severity (2-4 Gy), III of, heavy (4-6 Gy), IV of, very heavy (6-10 Gy).During acute radiation sickness distinguish 4 periods: the primary reaction, a hidden (latent), height, recovery.
primary reaction or the beginning of acute radiation sickness is characterized by the appearance of symptoms after 1-2 hours of general malaise, weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.In the blood, a decrease in the number of lymphocytes in the background leukocytosis.The duration of the primary reaction is usually not more than one day.Then comes the period of an imaginary being, or hidden, ongoing at the I degree of radiation sickness 4-5 weeks, with the II - 2-4 weeks, with III - 1,5-2,5 weeks, with IV - 1-1,5 weeks andless.During this period, it retained good health of patients, but the number of blood lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, progressively decreases.Relative to the outer sign of latent radiation sickness is an intensive hair loss.
- treatment of fractures during radiation injuries
- Conservative treatment for multiple fractures of extremities
- Fractures with radiation injuries: first aid
- abdominal organ injuries
- spinal cord injuries and cauda equina
- Diagnostics and first aid at the same time turn the femur and tibia bones
- damage to abdominal organs and limbs
most vividly acute radiation sickness is manifested in the crisis period.Again, there are signs of malaise, at the same time the temperature rises, develops pronounced hemorrhagic syndrome, bleeding more often localized in the skin, mucous membranes in the digestive tract.There are signs of cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, progressive anemia.The blood is sharply reduced number of leukocytes, platelets, developed agranulocytosis.As a result of immunosuppression infectious complications easily occur: necrotic angina, gingivitis, stomatitis, enterocolitis, pneumonia, developed toxemia, bacteremia.
The clinical picture is dominated in affected fever, weakness, cerebral symptoms.Especially pronounced hemorrhagic syndrome (multiple hemorrhages in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, mucous membranes, abundant nasal, gastrointestinal and other bleeding), which resulted in the rapidly progressing anemia, cardiovascular failure, neurological disorders.The general condition of the affected during the height of radiation sickness worsens.