Age-related changes in the lungs
The Aging Of The Human Body / / April 29, 2016
human body aging
lungs have two main functions: to get oxygen from the air, which is essential for life and to remove carbon dioxide from the body.Carbon dioxide is a byproduct of many chemical reactions that sustain life.
During breathing, air enters and leaves the lungs.It flows through smaller airways (trachea), finally fills the tiny sacs called alveoli.Blood circulates around the alveoli through capillaries (tiny blood vessels).In places where there are capillaries and alveoli, oxygen passes into the blood.At the same time, carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the alveoli, which would be exhaled ??.
Light microscopic continuously exposed to airborne particles, including smoke, pollen, dust and microorganisms.Some of these substances inhaled can cause lung disease if their concentration is sufficiently high, or the body is particularly sensitive to them.
body normally generates new alveoli until about 20 years.After that, the lungs begin to lose some of their tissue.T
Changes in the bones and muscles change the size of the chest.Loss of bone mass in the spine and ribs, as well as the deposition of various salts in the costal cartilages, curvature of the spine, kyphosis, lordosis, or scoliosis, can change, but rather to reduce the amount of inhaled air with a sigh.Maximum inspiratory or expiratory force decreases with age, as the diaphragm and intercostal muscles become weaker.The chest is less able to stretch to make breathing movements, and breathing rate can change slightly to compensate for this decline in the ability to expand the chest.
Influence of age-related changes of lung
Maximum lung function decreases with age.The amount of oxygen in the blood from diffusing air pockets is reduced.Air flow through the airways decreases slowly after 30 years.A maximum power that you can create on the inhalation and exhalation decreases.Nevertheless, even older people should have the appropriate lung function, allowing to carry out daily activities, because we have a "backup" of lung function.That is why normal people tolerate surgical removal of the entire lung and retain the ability to breathe well enough remaining light.
important change for many older people is that clogged the airways more easily.The airways tend to become clogged when an elderly person breathes shallowly or when he was in bed for a long time.Breathing is shallow, because it causes pain.Disease or operation causes an increased risk of pneumonia and other problems with the lungs.To older people it is important to be in bed as low as possible, even if they are ill or after surgery.When this is not possible, it would be useful to make a spirometry.It is the use of a small device to help keep the airways open and free from mucus.
Normally, breathing is controlled by the brain.It receives information from the different parts of the body, by adjusting the level of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Low oxygen levels or high carbon dioxide levels causes a change in the speed and depth of breathing.This is fine if even healthy elderly people have a reduced response to the oxygen reduction and increase of carbon dioxide levels.
vocal cords (larynx) also changes with age.This causes the height, volume and voice quality affected.The voice may become quieter and a little hoarse.The height may become lower in women and increased in men.The voice may sound weak, but most people remain quite capable of effective communication with others.
Elderly people are at increased risk of lung infections.In the body there are many ways to protect against lung infections.With age, this ability is weakened.
cough reflex may not be called with the same alacrity, and cough may be less strong.The inner surface of the lungs is lined with cilia.With age, the cilia are less able to move, reducing the ability to remove mucus from the respiratory tract.In addition, nose and respiratory tract secrete less of a substance called immunoglobulin A , antibodies that protect against viruses.Thus, the elderly are more susceptible to pneumonia and other lung infections.
Common Problems light in the elderly include:
- chronically low oxygen levels, which significantly reduces resistance to disease,
- decreased ability to carry out abnormal breathing, including sleep apnea (episodes of stopping breathing during sleep),
- increasedthe risk of lung infections, such as bronchitis or pneumonia, and diseases caused by the tobacco damage (such as emphysema and lung cancer).
Prevention of age-related changes in the lungs from smoking
-Otkaz is the most important way to minimize the effects of aging lung.
- Regular exercise will help to improve breathing capacity.
- Exercise capacity may be affected by changes in the heart, blood vessels, muscles, skeleton, and lungs.However, studies have shown that physical exercise and training may improve lung capacity margin even in the elderly.
-Pozhilym people need to be aware of the need to be on their feet and consciously try to increase deep breathing during illness or after surgery.
- supports voice chat, sing, read aloud.Continued use of the voice helps maintain overall communication with the public.