Age-related changes in immunity
The Aging Of The Human Body / / April 28, 2016
aging of the human body
thymus gland (thymus), one of the organs of the immune system, which is the place where are produced by some immune cells called T-lymphocytes (T-cells).The thymus begins to shrink (atrophy) after adolescence.In middle age it is only about 15% of its maximum size.
Some of the T cells directly kill foreign particles.Others help coordinate that part of the immune system, which specialize in attacking various kinds of infections.Although the number of T-cells does not diminish with age, their function is reduced.It weakens the immune system of the human body.
Effect of changes
immune system loses its ability to fight infections, to the extent that, as you get older.This increases the risk of falling ill, and makes preventive vaccination less effective.The ability of the immune system to detect and correct defective cells is also reduced, resulting in an increase of cancer diseases associated with aging.
In a mature organism sometimes happens that the immune system has
Other things also increase the risk of infection.Change sensation, gait, changes in skin texture and other "normal aging changes" increase the risk of injury in which bacteria can penetrate through the damaged skin.Illness or surgery can further weaken the immune system, making the body more susceptible to subsequent infection.Diabetes, which is also more prevalent with age, can also lead to reduction of immunity.
Aging also affects inflammation and wound healing.Inflammation is an immune response - when the immune system thinks that there is a problem, it sends more cells to the site of the problem.This causes swelling, pain, redness, heat, and irritation.Inflammation is often a sign of infection, but can also occur under autoimmune attack.
Many elderly people are recovering slowly.It can be directly related to changes in the immune system, or it may be due to other problems, such as diabetes or atherosclerosis, which leads to a reduction of blood flow in parts of the body such as lower legs.
addition, many elderly people are taking anti-inflammatory drugs (to control diseases such as arthritis), which is known to slow the healing of wounds.
Common problems of the immune system in the elderly:
- Increased risk of infection;
- Decreased ability to fight disease;
- Delayed wound healing;
- Autoimmune disorders;
Prevention of age-related diseases
- Just as immunizations are important to prevent the disease in children, several important immunization to the extent that as we get older.Adults need to be vaccinated against tetanus (Td) immunizations should be every 10 years.
- Your doctor may recommend other immunizations, including Pneumovax (to prevent pneumonia or its complications), flu vaccine, hepatitis and others.These additional vaccinations are not necessary for all older people, but for some.
Saving overall healthy lifestyle also helps.Health promotion includes:
-Adekvatnaya physical activity;Okay
-Otkaz from smoking;
- Limited use of alcohol.The moderate consumption of alcohol has some health benefits, but excessive drinking can cause serious damage;
-compliance precautions to avoid falls and other injuries associated with impaired motor coordination.