Age-related changes in the senses : hearing, sight , smell, taste , touch,
The Aging Of The Human Body / / April 27, 2016
aging of the human body
With age, your senses such as taste, smell, touch, sight, and hearing are also subject to senile changes.Your senses become less acute, and may have problems of various kinds.
Sensory changes can have a huge impact on your lifestyle.You may experience problems with communication, implementation of activities and social interaction.Sensory changes can contribute to a feeling of isolation.
With senses a person receives a certain type of information from the environment (light, sound, vibration, and so on).This information is converted into nerve impulses and transmitted to the brain where it is interpreted in a meaningful sense.
Each requires a certain sense of minimal stimulation to the perception of sensations.This minimum level is called the threshold.Aging increases this threshold, so the amount of sensory information for the appearance of feeling needed more.Changes in body parts associated with sensations, constitute a significant majority in comparison with other ag
Hearing and vision changes are subject to the strongest, but also the other senses may be affected as a result of aging.Fortunately, many age-related changes in the senses can be compensated in such modern equipment, like glasses and hearing aids or minor changes in lifestyle.
Age-related changes in hearing
To fully listen, we need both ears.One hears more and maintains the balance.The ear perceives sound when the vibrations reach the eardrum, located in the inner ear.The vibrations are converted into nerve impulses and carried by the auditory nerve to the brain.
sound balance is under the control of the inner ear.The fluid and hairs semicircular canals (membranous labyrinth) stimulate the nerve that helps the brain maintain balance.With age, the ear structure to deteriorate.The eardrum often thickens, and the middle ear bones and other structures are affected.This often leads to coordination disorders (equilibrium).
Hearing may decrease, especially the perception of high frequency sounds in people who are in a constant noise at a young age.This age hearing loss is called presbycusis.Hearing loss is almost inevitable.It is estimated that 30% of all people over 65 have significant hearing impairment.
of hearing may decline slightly beginning about 50 years, maybe it is caused by changes in the auditory nerve.In addition, the reduced ability of the brain to process and convert the sounds into meaningful information.Hardens with age, ear wax is another cause hearing problems.Fortunately, cerumen can be easily removed in the office otolaryngologist.
Sensorineural hearing loss involves damage to the inner ear, auditory nerve or the brain.This type of hearing loss may or may not respond to the treatment, but the auditory function may be restored using the hearing aid.
Conductive hearing loss occurs when sound has problems with passing through the outer and middle ear to the inner ear.Hearing aids or surgery may be useful for this type of hearing loss, depending on the specific reasons.
Persistent, noises in the ears is another fairly common hearing problem, especially for older people.It occurs most often due to narrowing or, on the contrary, the expansion of the brain blood vessels, neck, or placed directly in the ear.Blood noise obstacle or with an increased rate of flow by vasodilatation, causing quite a sharp noise.Spasms of the jaw and ear muscles crunch in mandibular joint may also be accompanied by tinnitus, audible even around the patient.
age-related changes of
vision (vision of any objects, colors) occurs when light is processed by the eye and interpreted by the brain.Light passes through the transparent surface of the eye (cornea).The outer side of the eye is covered with an elastic and durable cornea, performs a protective function.The pupil becomes larger or smaller, and controls the amount of light entering the eye.The iris is a muscle that controls the size of the pupil.After the light passes through the pupil, it reaches a lens.The lens focuses light on the retina (in the back of the eye).The retina converts light energy into nerve impulses that are carried to the brain and interpreted.
Some age-related changes of eyes may begin as early as 30 years.Aging eyes produce less tears.Dry eyes can be a lot of inconveniences.Many people find relief by using eyedrops or artificial tears.
all structures of the eye change with age.The cornea becomes less sensitive, so small injury can not be seen.By the time you turn 60, your pupils may be reduced by about one-third the size of what they were when you were 20 years old.The pupil may also react more slowly in response to darkness or bright light.The lens becomes yellowed, less flexible and slightly turbid.Fat deposits, maintaining eye decrease and the eye sinks into the orbit.The ability of the eye muscles to contract weakens, making it difficult for the eye turns.
age, visual acuity may decline gradually.Glasses or contact lenses may help correct age-related vision changes.Almost every person over 55 years is the need to wear glasses, at least part of the time.However, the amount of change is not universal.Only 15% - 20% of older people have bad enough vision, impairs the ability to drive and only 5% is not able to read.The most common problem is the difficulty of the eyes to focus on something close.This condition is called presbyopia, or presbyopia.
You may be less able to tolerate bright light, and you may find that you have more trouble adapting to darkness or bright light.Many older people find that although their vision is good enough to go during the day, they have to give up night driving because of problems with a quick perception of a bright light, change the brightness of the darkness.Significant difficulty with night driving may be the first sign of a cataract (clouding of the lens of the eye).
for people of all ages, is more difficult to distinguish between blue and green colors than to distinguish between red and yellow.This becomes even more pronounced with age.As age increases, using warm contrasting colors (yellow, orange and red) in your home can improve your ability to perceive where things are and easier to perform daily activities.Many older people find that the use of red light in the dark room (eg, hallway or bathroom), helps to better distinguish objects than with the use of "normal" world.The red color gives less glare than a regular incandescent light bulb.
With age, the amount of fluid inside the eye can be changed.Particles that fall into the eye, can create "floaters" in your visual field.Although it is annoying, but usually it does not indicate a dangerous condition and reduces vision.
With age, the eye loses its ability to move in all directions.Lookup can be limited.The region in which objects can be seen (field of view) is getting smaller.Reduced peripheral vision is common and can limit social interaction and activity.Older people can not communicate with the people sitting next to them, because they can not see them, or is it difficult.Food and beverage can be spilled.Driving can be dangerous.
Common eye diseases in older people who are not normal: cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy.
Age-related changes in bite and olfactory (smell)
sense of taste and smell interact closely, helping us to appreciate the food.Most tastes really comes from odors.The sense of smell begins at nerve receptors inside of the nose.
In humans, about 9000 taste buds.Taste buds are primarily responsible for the perception of sweet, salty, sour and bitter taste.
Smell (and to a lesser extent, taste) also play a role in the safety and pleasure.We detect certain dangers, such as spoiled food, noxious gases and smoke by means of taste and smell.Delicious food and a pleasant aroma can improve social interaction and enjoyment of life.
number of taste buds t begins to decline around the age of 40 - 50 years for women, and about 50 to 60 years for men.Each remaining taste buds begin to atrophy (lose mass).If the taste is lost, then, as a rule, the perception of sweet and salty taste is reduced first with the bitter and sour tastes takes slightly longer.Furthermore, salivary glands produce less saliva with age.This leads to dry mouth, which can make swallowing more difficult process.It also makes it a little less efficient digestion and can increase dental problems.
sense of smell may be reduced, especially after 70 years.This may be due to loss of nerve endings in the nose.
Study on the reasons for the decline of taste and sense of smell with aging have conflicting results.Some studies have shown that normal aging by itself produces very little change in taste and odor.Most likely, the changes may be associated with disease, smoking and exposure to the environment throughout their life.
Whatever the reason, the reduction of taste and smell can reduce the interest and fun to eat.Some people become less aware of personal hygiene when the sense of smell is reduced.By reducing the sense of taste in cooking healthy can help a variety of spices and seasonings, or a change in the usual cooking methods.
For some people, there is an increased risk of choking because they can not detect the smell of gas stoves, boilers or other devices that use natural gas.Visual gas detectors, which change the appearance, or a beep sounds when gas or smoke is present in the home, can be very useful.
Age changes touch
sense of touch also includes awareness of vibrations, pain and body position.The skin, muscles, tendons, joints and internal organs have receptors that detect touch, pain and temperature.Our brain interprets the type and amount of touch sensations.It also interprets the sensation as pleasant, such as heat strokes, unpleasant, such as very hot, shots, or neutral, for example, a simple touch to something.
Medications, brain surgery, problems in the brain, confusion, and nerve damage due to trauma or chronic diseases such as diabetes can change this interpretation without changing the consciousness of sensations.For example, you can feel and recognize the pain, but it does not bother you.Some of the brain receptors provide information about the position and condition of the internal organs.Even if you can not recognize this information, it helps to identify changes (for example, the pain of appendicitis).
Many studies have shown that age may vary or decrease pain perception vibration, cold, heat, pressure, and touch.It is difficult to say whether these changes are the result of aging or disorders that occur more often in older people.It is possible that some of the normal changes of aging are caused by a decrease in blood flow to the sensory receptors and the brain and spinal cord.Lack of vitamins or minerals such as reduction of vitamin B1 (thiamine), may also be the cause of the changes.
Whatever the reason, many people experience changes in sensations of touch as they age.For example, it becomes increasingly difficult to find the difference between the cool and cold.Reduced temperature sensitivity increases the risk of injuries such as frostbite, hypothermia, heat stroke and burns.
Reducing opportunities for the detection of vibration, touch and pressure increases the risk of injuries, including pressure ulcers.After 50 years, many people have reduced sensitivity to pain.You can get problems with walking because of reduced ability to perceive the surrounding space, for example, where your body towards the floor.This increases the risk of falling, being a common problem for older people.
sensitivity to light touch can be reduced.However, some people develop hypersensitivity to light touch because of the thin skin, particularly people over 70 years.
To improve safety, make allowances for changes in sensory:
- Limitation of the maximum temperature of the water in your home, use an adjustable heater can reduce the risk of burns.
- Use a thermometer to decide how best to dress, and not to wait until the begin to feel overheating or overcooling.
- Often check and inspect your skin (especially feet) with injuries, and if you find an injury, treat.Do not think that just because the area is not painful, the injury is not important and does not require treatment.