Age-related changes in the bones , muscles, joints , spine
The Aging Of The Human Body / / August 12, 2017
aging of the human body
Changes in posture and gait are universally associated with aging as changes in skin and hair.
skeleton supports the structure of the body.Joints are the areas where bones meet.They allow the skeleton to be flexible to perform movements.Thus, the bone does not directly contact with each other.Mobile connections are provided with bone joints, soft cartilage in the joint, synovial membrane around the joint, and periarticular (synovial) fluid.
muscles provide the strength and power to move the body.Coordinated controls the brain, but it is affected by changes in the muscles and joints.Changes in the muscles, joints, bones and affects posture and gait, and leads to weakness and slowness of movement.
Bone mass and bone density is lost with age, especially in women after menopause.The bones lose calcium and other minerals.
The spine is made up of bones called vertebrae.Located intervertebral disc between each bone, which is a gel-like cushion (hyaline cartilage).Over time,
In addition, vertebrae lose some minerals, which makes each of them thinner.The spine is curved and compressed.Undergo changes and joints between the upper and lower articular processes, because their edges are formed irregularly shaped tumors of bone material caused by aging.
long bones of the arms and legs, though, and become more fragile due to loss of minerals, but do not change the length.This makes the arms and legs are longer than the shortened spine.
joints with age, become stiff and less flexible.Fluid in the joints may decrease, the cartilage may begin to rub against each other and collapse.There is also a salt deposits in the joints, their calcification - calcification.
hip and knee joints are most often exposed to degenerative changes of the articular cartilage.finger joints lose cartilage and the bones thicken slightly.Changes in bone fingers - osteoarthritis is more common in women and can be hereditary.
Some compounds, such as the ankle is usually very little change with aging.
body mass index decreases, in part this is due to the loss of muscle tissue (atrophy).The rate and extent of muscle changes depend on genetic predisposition.Muscle changes often begin at age 20 for men and 40 women.
lipofuscin (age pigment) and fat is stored in muscle tissue.Muscle fibers contract.Muscle tissue is replaced by more slowly, and the loss of muscle may be substituted stiff fibrous tissue.This is particularly noticeable in the hands, which are thin and bony.
Changes in muscle tissue, in combination with normal age-related changes in the nervous system, may result in muscle tone, reducing the ability to shrink.Muscles may become rigid with age and may lose tone even with regular exercise.
bones become more brittle and can break easily.The overall height is reduced, mainly due to the shortening of the spine of the trunk.
Inflammation, pain, stiffness and deformity may result from the collapse of the joint structures.Almost all older people suffer from joint changes, ranging from minor to severe arthritis.
Pose may be more inclined (bent) and the knees and hips are bent over.The neck can be slanted, narrow shoulders and hips, on the contrary, becomes wider.
Movement slows and may become limited.The gait becomes slower, shorter steps or less.Walking can become unstable, trembling of the hands appears.Older people get tired much more easily and spend less energy.
power and toughness are also changing.The loss of muscle strength decreases.However, endurance can be improved somewhat, it is caused by changes in the muscle fibers.Aging athletes with healthy hearts and lungs may find that they have increased productivity in activities that require endurance, and decreases in activities that require short bursts of high speed operation.
Osteoporosis is a common problem, especially for older women.Bones become brittle and compression fractures of the vertebrae can cause pain and decreased mobility.Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by progressive loss of bone density and thinning of bone tissue highly vulnerable to fracture.Osteoporosis may be caused diseases, nutritional or hormonal deficiency or elderly.Regular exercise and vitamin and mineral supplements can reduce and even reverse the loss of bone density.
Muscle weakness contributes to fatigue, weakness, reduced tolerance to activity.The risk of injury increases as the change of gait, instability, and loss of balance may lead to falls.
Some elderly people have commented reduced reflexes.It is most often caused by changes in the muscles and tendons, rather than changes in the nerves.Reduced knee jerk or ankle jerk may occur.Some changes, such as a positive Babinski, are not a normal part of aging.
Involuntary movements (muscle tremors and fine movements called fasciculations) are more common in older people.Inactive or immobile elderly people may experience weakness or abnormal sensations (paresthesia).
Muscle contractions can occur in people who are unable to move on their own, or stretch their muscles through exercise.
Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease of the articular cartilage and bone, often thought to result from "wear and tear", although there are other causes, such as congenital defects, trauma and metabolic disorders.The joints appear larger, are stiff and painful, and usually deliver discomfort with prolonged, or even normal loads during the day.Osteoarthritis is associated with the aging process and can affect any joint.The cartilage gradually wears in the affected joint, eventually causing bone friction.Bone spurs develop on the unprotected surfaces of the bones, causing pain and inflammation.
prevention of age changes of the spine, bones, muscles and joints
Exercise is one of the best ways to slow or prevent problems with the muscles, joints and bones.A moderate exercise program will help you maintain strength and flexibility.Exercise helps bones stay strong.Consult with your doctor before starting a new exercise program.
well-balanced diet with enough calcium is very important.Women need to be especially careful to get enough calcium and of vitamin D, as they age.Postmenopausal women and men over 65 years of age, you need 1,200 - 1,500 mg of calcium and 400 - 800 international units of vitamin D per day.
Flexibility Exercises in its simplest form, stretch and lengthen the muscles.Disciplines that involve stretching with controlled breathing and meditation include yoga and tai chi.The benefits of flexibility may go beyond physical perfection reduce stress, but also to promote a sense of well-being.