Age-related changes in organs , tissues and human cells
The Aging Of The Human Body / / April 26, 2016
aging of the human body
All vital organs begin to lose some function with age.Age-related changes were found in all body cells, tissues and organs, and these changes affect the functioning of all body systems.
Living tissue is composed of cells.There are many different types of cells, but they all have the same structure.Fabric - it's like the layers of cells that perform a specific function.Different kinds of groups formed in the tissue organs.
There are four basic types of tissue:
connective tissue, it supports other tissues and binds them together.It includes bone, blood and lymphatic tissue, in addition to the tissues, which provide support and structure of the skin and internal organs.
Epithelial tissue provides a covering on the deeper layers of the body.The skin and the surface of the various passages inside of the epithelial tissue of the body.
Muscle tissue is made up of three types of tissue:
striated muscles such as those that move the skeleton.Smooth muscle, such as the muscl
heart muscle that makes up a large part of the heart.Nerve tissue is composed of nerve cells (neurons) and is used to transmit messages from the different parts of the body.The brain is composed of nerve tissue.
Cells are the basic building blocks of tissue.All cells experience changes with age.They become larger and less able to divide and multiply.Among other modifications, increase of fatty acids, and pigments intracellular (lipid).Many cells lose their ability to perform their functions, or they begin to function properly.
With age, the waste accumulated in the tissues.Fatty brown lipofuscin pigment is collected in many tissues, as well as other fatty substances.
Connective tissue undergoes changes, it becomes more and more rigid.This makes the organs, blood vessels, airways less elastic.Changes in cell membranes also occur, so many tissues have trouble getting the oxygen and nutrients getting rid of carbon dioxide and waste.
Many tissues lose mass.This process is called atrophy.Some tissues become nodular or more stringent.
The most significant changes are the heart, lungs and kidneys.
These changes occur slowly and over a long period of time.When the organs are working at maximum capacity, it can not increase its functions.Sudden heart failure or other problems can develop when the body is working harder than usual.
factors, creating an additional burden on the body:
- Some medications
Disease - Significant changes in life
- Increased physical activity
-Vnezapnoe change in
activity - rise to great heights
Precautions should be taken differentdrugs in adulthood, becausegreat risk of side effects from their use by other bodies.
medication side effects can mimic the symptoms of many diseases, so it is easy to make a mistake by reaction of the drug on the disease.Some drugs have very different side effects in the elderly than in younger people.
theory of aging
cells No one knows how and why people change as they grow older.Some theories claim that aging is associated with cumulative trauma from UV radiation, wear and tear of the body, with the side effect of metabolic products, and so on.Other theories suggest the aging is genetically controlled process.However, neither theory explains quite convincingly changes taking place in the aging process.
Aging is a complex and diverse process, which have different effects on different people and even different organs.Most gerontologists (people who study aging) believe that aging is the cumulative effect of the interaction of many factors in his lifetime.These factors include heredity, the influence of the environment, cultural influences, diet, physical activity and recreation, past illnesses and many other factors.
In contrast, changes in adolescence, are predictable to within a few years, everyone aged aging in their own way.Some systems are already beginning to age 30 years.Other aging processes occur much later.While some changes tend to occur with age, they occur at different rates and to different degrees.There is no reliable way to predict specifically how you will change with age.
cells are reduced.If a sufficient number of cells are reduced in size, it is indicative of organ atrophy.This often is the normal age-related changes that can occur in any tissue.It is most prevalent in skeletal muscle, heart, brain, and secondary sex organs (eg, breast).
Cause atrophy is unknown, but probably the following reasons: stress reduction, reducing the blood supply and nutrition of cells, and reduced stimulation of nerves and hormones.
cells increased.This increase in size is due to an increase in cellular proteins such as cell wall and internal cell structure and no increase of cell liquid.
When some cells atrophy, others may hypertrophy in an attempt to compensate for the loss of cell mass.
number of cells increases.There is increase in the rate of cell division.
Hyperplasia usually occurs in an attempt to compensate for the loss of cells.This allows some organs and tissue regeneration ability to maintain, including skin, gut mucosa, liver, and bone marrow.The liver is particularly well regenerated.It can replace up to 70% of its structure within 2 weeks after injury.
Other tissues have a limited capacity for regeneration, such as bone, cartilage and smooth muscle (for example, the muscles around the intestines).
There are fabrics that are rarely or never restored, including nerves, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and the lens of the eye.If the damage these tissues are replaced by scar tissue.
size, shape, or organization of mature cells becomes abnormal.It is also called atypical hyperplasia.Dysplasia is quite common in cervical cells and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract.
formation of tumors, such as cancer (malignant) or benign (noncancerous).
Tumor cells often reproduce very quickly.They may have an unusual shape and impaired function.