Age-related changes in hormone production
The Aging Of The Human Body / / April 23, 2016
aging of the human body
The endocrine system consists of organs and tissues that produce hormones.Natural hormones are chemicals produced in one location, into the blood, and then used in other target organs and systems.
Hormones control the target organs.Some organ systems have their own internal control system instead of hormones.
naturally with age, there are changes in the systems of the body, which are under control.Some target tissues become less sensitive to control their hormones.The amount of hormones produced by endocrine system may also vary.
level of certain hormones in the blood may be an increase or a decrease, but some remain unchanged.Metabolic processes (metabolism), respectively, can take place more quickly or more slowly.
Many organs that produce hormones, in turn, controlled by other hormones.Aging also changes the process.For instance, slower growth of endocrine tissue can lead to a decrease in production of its respective hormones than it did in an earlier age, or hormo
hypothalamus The hypothalamus is in the brain.It produces hormones that control the other structures in the endocrine system.The amount of these regulating hormones stays about the same, but the response of the endocrine organs of these hormones may change with age.
The pituitary gland is also located in the brain.This gland reaches its maximum size in middle age, and then decreased gradually.It consists of three parts: anterior, intermediate and posterior.
front portion produces hormones that affect the thyroid gland, adrenal cortex, ovaries, testes, and mammary glands.These hormones regulate the synthesis and secretion of hormones gipofizozavisimyh glands of feedback: while reducing the concentration of a certain hormone in the blood of anterior pituitary cells secrete signaling hormone that stimulates the production of this hormone gland and increase its level in the blood slows down the secretion of the hormone signal.
In the intermediate part of lipotropic factors produced by the pituitary gland, affecting the mobilization and utilization of fat in the body.
thyroid gland is located in the neck and produces hormones that help control metabolism.With aging, the thyroid often becomes lumpy (nodular).Metabolism gradually declines, beginning around 20 years.With age, the secretion of hormones may be reduced.
parathyroid glands - four tiny glands located around the thyroid gland.They produce parathyroid hormone involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism.This, in turn, affects the bone strength.Changes in the level of parathyroid hormone may contribute to osteoporosis.
Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.Insulin molecule binds to a specific glycoprotein receptor on the target cell surface.It acts as a key to the lock, to help sugar (glucose) pass from the blood into the cells where it can be used to generate energy.
average fasting glucose level rises 6 to 14 mg / dL (milligrams per deciliter) for every 10 years after age 50.This is because cells become less responsive to insulin action probably due to loss of insulin receptors in the cell wall.
adrenal The adrenal glands are located just above the kidneys.The adrenal cortex, its surface layer, produces the hormones aldosterone and cortisol.
Aldosterone regulates fluid and electrolyte balance.
Cortisol is the hormone "stress".It affects the breakdown of glucose, protein and fat, and has anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effect.
aldosterone secretion decreases with age, it can contribute to the emergence of dizziness and lower your blood pressure with a sharp transition from the horizontal to the vertical state of the body (orthostatic hypotension).
cortisol secretion also decreases with age, but in the blood level remains about the same.DHEA levels are also falling, although the impact of this fall on the body are not clear.
ovaries and testes have two functions.They produce the sex cells (eggs and sperm).They also produce hormones that control the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as breasts and facial hair and body hair.With age, men sometimes experience a decrease in testosterone levels.Women observed reduction of estradiol and other hormones estrogen after menopause.
Effect of changes in hormones in the body
In general, the levels of certain hormones is reduced, some will remain unchanged, and some increases with age.
hormones that usually declines with age :
Calcitonin - hormone
growth - Renin
- In women, estrogen and prolactin.
Hormones that remain unchanged or slightly reduced:
- hormones T3 and T4 thyroid
- In men, testosterone levels usually decreases somewhat as they age.
hormones, production of which may increase with age:
- follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
- Luteinizing hormone (LH)
- Parathyroid hormone.