Age-related changes in the skin and a person's face
The Aging Of The Human Body / / August 12, 2017
aging of the human body
Skin changes are among the most visible signs of aging.Evidence of age are wrinkles and sagging skin.Discoloration or graying of hair as an obvious sign of aging.
functions and skin structure
Our skin performs many functions.It protects us from the environment, helps control body temperature and fluid and electrolyte balance, contains nerve receptors that allow us to feel different sensations such as touch, pain, pressure, heat or cold.
Although skin has many layers, it can generally be divided into three main parts:
- The outer part (epidermis) contains horny skin cells, pigments and proteins.
- In the middle part (dermis) are blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles and sebaceous glands.Dermis contains nutrients in the epidermis, providing individual skin thickness, mechanical strength and elasticity.
- Inner layer beneath the dermis (subcutis) contains sweat glands, hair follicles, some blood vessels, and fat.Each layer consists of connective tissue and collagen f
Skin changes are related to environmental factors, genetics, diet and other factors.The most significant factor, however, is the sun.This can be seen by comparing the area of the body that are regularly exposed to solar radiation to the areas of skin that are protected from sunlight.
Natural pigments provide some protection from the sun and induced skin damage.Blue-eyed, fair-skinned people are more prone to early aging of the skin than people with darker, more heavily pigmented skin.
According becomes thinner, although the number of cell layers remains unchanged as the aging of the body, the outer layer of skin (epidermis).
amount of pigment contained in the cells (melanocytes) decreases, and the remaining melanocytes increase in size.Thus, the skin becomes thinner, more pale and translucent.On exposed skin appear large spots, the so-called age spots, liver spots, freckles.
changes occur in the connective tissue, reduced skin strength and elasticity.These changes are called elastosis, which is especially noticeable in open areas of skin exposed to the sun (solar elastosis).Elastosis resembles skin changes similar to chapping, which can be observed from the farmers, sailors and other people who spend large amounts of time outdoors.
blood vessels of the dermis become more fragile.This leads to bruising and bleeding under the skin, the so-called senile purpura, cherry angioma, and similar manifestations.
The sebaceous glands produce less fat grease with age.In men, this decline unobtrusive, usually after the age of 80.In women, decrease production of grease is gradual, and it is particularly noticeable after menopause.Reducing the amount of skin secretions often results in skin itching and dryness.
Subcutaneous fat layer becomes thinner, reducing its normal insulation and protection.This increases the risk of skin damage and reduces the ability to maintain body temperature.Because you have less natural subcutaneous fat insulation, the higher the risk of getting hypothermia in cold weather.
sweat glands with age produce less sweat.This reduces the body's ability to maintain normal body temperature, and the person becomes more susceptible to overheating, or the ability to get heat stroke.
mature and fading skin recovers more slowly than young skin.Wound healing may be four times slower.This contributes to the appearance of bedsores and infections.Diabetes, vascular changes, reduction of immunity, and other similar factors also affect healing.
skin lesions, such as birthmarks, moles (nevi), warts, atheroma and other defects are more common in older people.
Skin disorders are so common among the elderly, it is often difficult to distinguish between normal changes from those associated with the general disorder of the body.More than 90% of elderly people suffer from one or another type of skin diseases.
Skin diseases can be caused by many conditions, including:
- vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis
- Heart disease
- Liver disease
- nutrient deficiency
- reaction to
drugs - Stress
other causes of skin changes:
- Allergies to plants and other substances
- industry Impact and household chemicals
- heating and air-conditioning facilities
Sunlight can cause:
- Loss of elasticity (elastosis)
- benign skin tumors, keratomas (keratoacanthomas)
- Changes in pigmentation, such as pigment
spots - skin thickening
Exposure to the sun is also directly connectedwith the occurrence of skin cancer, including basal cell epithelioma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma.
Changing the face with age
typical appearance of the face and neck changes with age.Muscle tone may be lost, resulting in a face looks flabby and obvisshim.Chelyusti may begin to sag, leading to a "double chin" in some people.Some people nose slightly elongated and may be more pronounced.
There may also be an increase in the number, size, and color of pigmented spots on the face.This is largely due to the sun.
skin becomes thin, dry, with visible wrinkles.Although wrinkles are inevitable to some extent, but frequent sun exposure and cigarette smoking contributes to their early development.
Ears may lengthen slightly in some people (probably this is due to the growth of cartilage).Some men may find that they develop hair in the ears, which are longer, coarser, and more noticeable as they age.Sulphur glands in the ears is reduced in size and activity, and ear wax becomes drier.This dry easily blocks the ear canal, reducing the ability to hear.
Eyebrows and eyelashes are gray or gray.The skin around the eyelids becomes loose and wrinkled, often reminding "crow's feet".Hollow lose part of their body fat, causing the eyes look drowned and limits the movement of the eyes.On the lower eyelids may appear bags and drooping upper eyelids quite often, it also affects the review of.On the outer surface of the eye (cornea) may develop a grayish-white ring.called "senile arc" or Arcus senilis.The iris loses pigment, making most of the eyes are very elderly, gray or light golubmi.
tooth loss can make lips smorschennymi.Chelyustnaya bone loses some bone material, thereby reducing the size of the lower part of the face.The forehead, the nose, the mouth and thus look more pronounced.Gums may also recede, contributing to problems with teeth and changing the appearance of the mouth and lips.
prevention of age-related skin changes
Because most skin changes are related to sun exposure, prevention is an ongoing process.
main preventive measures are as follows:
- Prevent sunburn if at all possible.
- Use a good sunscreen when outdoors sunny, even in winter.
- Wear protective clothing and headgear as needed.
- Good nutrition and adequate fluid intake are also useful.Dehydration increases the risk of skin damage.
- Vitamins.Sometimes minor nutritional deficiencies can cause rashes, skin itching and other skin changes, even if there are no other symptoms.
- regularly moisten the skin moist lotions, creams and other moisturizers.Do not use soap containing flavoring or strongly flavored.Hydrated skin gives a more comfortable feeling and heal more quickly.