Bursitis : Causes, Symptoms , Treatment
Traumatology / / April 20, 2016
Bursitis - is swelling, irritation, inflammation of the bursa.
Bursa is a tiny fluid-filled sac or periarticular bag that acts as a cushion between the muscles, tendons and joints and as a gliding surface to reduce friction between tissues of the body.
In our bodies about 160 such bags, the main of which are located close to the tendons near the large joints such as the shoulders, elbows, hips and knees.Surface sac lined with synovial special cells that produce collagen-rich liquid and the protein.During inflammation bag filled with excess liquid, which causes the pressure of the surrounding tissue, causing pain, often accompanied by swelling and redness.
Bursitis usually occurs in the shoulder, knee, elbow, hip, but can be hit and the Achilles tendon and foot.
Causes and risk factors of bursitis
Bursitis can develop in anyone, but some factors can increase the risk of:
- Age.Occurrence bursitis becomes increasingly possible with age.
- Some disease.Chronic disease
- Infection.Infections can also cause inflammation of the bursa.
- Injury.Some of the bags, for example, in the knee and elbow joints are located directly under the skin, so they have a higher risk of injury - punctures, which can lead to infection of bags and cause septic bursitis.
- profession or hobby.If your work or hobbies require repetitive movements or pressure on the individual bags, you have an increased risk of developing bursitis.Examples of such professions include: tiling, gardening, painting, and playing musical instruments.
- Changes in the level of activity and stress on the joints and periarticular bag.This may be due to the preparation for a competition or overweight.
- salt deposits in the wall of the periarticular bag.
Symptoms of bursitis
- Pain and inflammation in the joints, especially noticeable when you press around the joint
- Stiffness or reduce the affected range of motion in the joint
- Swelling or redness over the joint
- muscle weakness
- Malaise, weakness, performance decline
- Local temperatuvy increase (in the hearth of bursitis)
- Increased body temperature, especially in infectious bursitis.
diagnosis of bursitis
Bursitis is usually diagnosed by localized pain or swelling, tenderness and pain in the tissue motion in the affected area.
X-ray inspection can sometimes detect calcium deposits in the area of the inflamed bursa in chronic or recurrent bursitis.
Treatment of bursitis
Treatment of bursitis usually involves conservative measures such as rest, cold to the affected area, and receive pain medication as a first step.
If conservative measures do not give a positive result, treatment may include:
- Fixing the affected joint.
- Medicines.If the inflammation is caused by an infection in the bag it can be illustrated antibiotics.
- Therapy.Physical therapy or exercises to strengthen the muscles in the affected area can relieve pain and prevent recurrence.
- Injections.To reduce inflammation in the bursa, usually prescribed corticosteroids.This procedure usually brings rapid relief of pain and, in many cases, only one injection is required.However, this applies only to non-infectious bursitis.
- Surgery.Sometimes inflammation of the bursa can be removed surgically, aimed at draining fluid from periarticular bag - surgical drainage.This procedure includes removing fluid via a syringe and needle in a sterile environment.Only in rare cases need surgical removal of the affected bursa (bursectomy).
- Physiotherapy.Physiotherapy treatment is prescribed for the purpose of an anti-inflammatory, resolving and analgesic effect.Usually applied dry heat, UHF, microwave therapy, short-wave therapy, paraffin or ozokerite applications on the area of the affected joint.
- Radiotherapy.bursitis Radiation therapy is used for subacute and chronic forms of the disease.In addition to anti-inflammatory effects, radiation therapy helps to restore impaired trophism and relieving pain.
- Massage and physiotherapy.These activities are assigned after the disappearance of inflammatory phenomena that could restore joint mobility and tone muscles.
following tips will help relieve the pain associated with bursitis, independently:
- Use ice 3 - 4 times a day for the first 2 or 3 days.
- Cover the painful area with a towel and put it on ice for 15 minutes.Do not fall asleep during use ice, you can get frostbite if you leave it too long.
- When asleep, do not lie down on the side that has bursitis.
- Do not self-medicate in order to avoid complications.When the first symptoms of bursitis should immediately consult a surgeon.
- When the pain in the joints or in any case can not independently apply hot compresses or a heating pad, this may lead to the development of purulent bursitis.
Bursitis knee joint
The knee joint is surrounded by three major bags.
On the edge of the knee over the patella bursa located prepatellar.This bursa can become inflamed from the direct front of the knee injury.This usually occurs after prolonged kneeling knit and professional characteristics of the patient's activity, but it can also develop when the sac fills with blood from an injury or from overuse.
second knee bursa is located directly below the patella under a large tendon that attaches the muscles of the anterior surface of the femur and the patella in front of the shin.This is called the infrapatellar bursa bag.Therefore, it is an inflammation called infrapatellar bursitis.It is often observed in inflammation of the adjacent tendons as a result of injuries from jumping, thus the name "jumper's knee".
third knee bursa is called "goose-sac."It is located on the lower inner side of the knee.This bursa becomes inflamed frequently in middle-aged women.This condition is called bursitis goose.Goose bursitis is particularly common in those who are obese.Such patients may feel pain in the knee when climbing or descending stairs.
Symptoms of bursitis of the knee
Bursitis of the knee joint can lead to varying degrees of edema, an increase in temperature in the area of destruction, pain and redness overlying the knee.This condition can cause stiffness and pain when walking, although the range of motion of the knee joint is often preserved.
tips that will help ease the pain caused by bursitis of the knee:
- Try not to kneel for long periods of time.
- When you stand on her knees, having spread a soft lining.
- Try to evenly distribute the weight on each leg.
- Place a pillow between your knees when you are lying on your side, it will help reduce the pain.
- Wearing a soft, comfortable shoes with flat soles often helps.
- If you are overweight, weight loss can also be helpful.
- Avoid activities that include repetitive movements of any part of the body where it is possible.
bursa of the elbow joint is located between the skin and acute bone in the back of the elbow.This joint is also exposed sharp, so bursitis of the elbow joint is a fairly common disease.
Usually bag olecranon is flat.If it becomes irritated or inflamed, it will accumulate more fluid, and will develop bursitis, causing pain and limiting movement.
elbow Bursitis can occur for a number of reasons:
- Injury: a hard blow with the tip of the elbow can cause bursitis.
- Prolonged pressure leaning on the elbow tip over longer periods of time on hard surfaces, such as a table, can cause swelling and edema of the bag.Typically, this type of bursitis develops over several months.
- Infection.When the tip of the elbow injury to the skin, such as an insect bite, scratch or puncture, the bacteria can get inside the bags and cause infection.
Symptoms of elbow bursitis
Edema is often the first sign of elbow bursitis.The skin on his elbow stretched slightly, so swelling may not be noticed immediately.As the edema bags, the skin begins to stretch, causing pain.The pain is often made worse by direct pressure on the elbow or bend the elbow.Edema can become large enough to restrict the movement of the elbow.
If bursitis is infected, the skin becomes red and hot.If the infection is not treated immediately, it can spread to other parts of the hand or enter the bloodstream.This may lead to serious disease.
the treatment of elbow bursitis great attention should be paid to the reasons that cause direct pressure on the swollen elbow.To this purpose special elbow for several months may be used to soften the surface of the elbow.Avoid activities that include repetitive movements of any part of the body where it is possible.
most commonly around three hip inflamed bursa:
1. trochanter bag.The bone of the hip point is called the greater trochanter.This is the point of attachment of muscles that move the hip joint.Rotisserie is quite large overlying periarticular bag, which can sometimes be subject to inflammation - hip bursitis, or it is also called trochanteric bursitis or trohanteritom.When inflammation of the trochanteric pain will be localized in the area of the outer lip at the femur.
2. iliac a comb bag.It is located on the inner side of the groin of the thigh.When her nerve pain is felt in the groin area.
3. Sciatic bag.This periarticular bag is located at the point of the buttock, in the place of attachment of muscles.Sciatic pain is usually accompanied by bursitis, which is enhanced by bending the hip.
reasons for bursitis hip
- Injuries caused by falling down the stairs, bike riding, standing for a long period of time or lying on one side of the body over a long period
time - Diseases of the spine, such as scoliosis, arthritis of the lumbar,spinal and other problems.
- different length legs.When one leg shorter than the other by more than 2 cm or so, it affects the gait and can cause irritation periarticular bag.
- Rheumatoid arthritis.
- Previous surgery.Surgery or hip implants in the hip area may provoke irritation of bags and cause bursitis.
- spurs or calcium deposits.They can develop in the tendons that attach to the skewer.They also irritate the bags and cause inflammation.
symptoms of hip bursitis
main symptom of bursitis of the hip joint is deep, sometimes burning pain in the hip, but it also usually extends beyond it along the outside of the thigh.In the early stages, the pain is usually described as sharp and intense, aggravated by flexion and extension of the thigh.
Typically, the pain is worse at night, especially if the patient lies on the affected side of the thigh, and when it comes from a chair after sat for a while.It can also worsen during prolonged walking, stair climbing, or squatting.
Treatment of hip bursitis
Easy noninfectious bursitis pelvis does not require surgical intervention.Many people experience relief from simple lifestyle changes, including:
- avoiding actions that worsen
symptoms - use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen, naproxen, piroxicam, celecoxib, and others that would control the inflammation and pain
-.The use of a cane or crutches when needed.
Surgery is rarely needed in hip bursitis.Removal of periarticular bag not painfully hip, thigh and can not function properly without it.
new technique that is gaining popularity arthroscopic removal of the bag when bag is removed through small incisions in the thigh.A tiny camera, or arthroscope is placed in the second cut, so that the physician can guide surgical instruments and remove most closely affected bursa.This procedure is much less invasive than those carried out earlier and recovery is faster and less painful.
Prevention of hip bursitis
Prevention aimed at preventing the behavior and activities that cause the development of bursitis:
- Avoid repetitive actions that emphasize the hips.
- Maintaining an optimal body weight.
- Using a special corrective shoes in case the legs of different lengths.
- Maintaining the strength and flexibility of the thigh muscles
- Avoid activities that include repetitive movements of any part of the body where it is possible.
- Age-related changes in the bones, muscles, joints, spine
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Bursitis of the shoulder joint
The shoulder is a complex of several bones, muscles, ligaments connected to the upper side of the sternum.Between these bones lies the tendons of the rotator cuff, and bags that protect the tendon.Infringement syndrome occurs when inflammation between the top of the humerus (arm bone) and the acromion (tip of the shoulder).Tendons are easily slide in this space.In some people this space becomes too narrow for normal motion, and the tendons become inflamed and bags.Inflammation leads to thickening of the tendons and the bag and helps to reduce the space in this place.In the end, this space is too small to accommodate the tendons and bags, causing impairment.
Syndrome prejudice is a descriptive term of pinching the tendons and bags in the rotator cuff between bones, but often this term describe and bursitis of the shoulder joint.
Causes of bursitis of the shoulder joint
- physiological structure of the shoulder joint.For many people, it is a physiological problem associated with the shape of their bones so that they have less space to slip, that can also cause bursitis symptoms.
- shoulder injury.After a tendon injury and bags inflamed, inflammation causes a thickening of these structures, taking up more space, and therefore the tendons and bags can be clipped even further.
Symptoms of bursitis of the shoulder joint
- Pain when lifting the arms above the head
- Pain while sleeping at night
- Pain in the shoulder region abduction at the hands back, rotary movements with his hands.
Treatment of shoulder bursitis
In the first stage of treatment is necessary to reduce inflammation.The best rule in this state, "If it hurts, do not do it!"This applies to all simple actions, such as raising the arms above the head, weight lifting, throwing activity, lying in bed with his hands over or behind the head.
Some simple exercises or physical therapy can help to return to normal activities without pain.These exercises help to strengthen the rotator cuff.