Side-effects and complications of the use of psychotropic drugs
Mental Disorders / / April 24, 2016
Psychotropic drugs are not only the therapeutic effect against mental disorders.They also have the potential to cause other changes in the body that are unwanted and therefore belong to the so-called side effects.Part
side effects in the form of infiltrates associated with local tissue irritation at the injection solutions of these drugs in the form of dyspeptic symptoms resulting from their toxic effect, occurs in many patients in the early stages of treatment and directly dependent on the magnitude of the doses.Another part
side effects (mainly in the form of disorders of the central nervous system - the extrapyramidal and autonomic disorder) occurs at various stages of treatment, a significantly smaller number of patients and is associated with an individual sensitive to psychoactive drugs.In these cases, the severity of side effects is not always dependent on the dosage amounts of the drugs.
Complications different from the side effects that are characterized by involvement in the pathological
Disorders of the cardiovascular system
blood pressure lowering is usual for aliphatic derivatives of phenothiazine.Of particular importance is expressed within 30-40 minutes after the administration of these drugs tendency to orthostatic collapse - a sharp drop in blood pressure when changing the patient's position from horizontal to vertical and vice versa.Therefore, after the drug administration, patients should stay in bed for at least 40-45 minutes.
disorders of the nervous system
- parkinsonian syndrome: general motor inhibition with increased muscle tone, mask-like face, hand tremor, gait with small steps, slowed speech;
- akathisia: restlessness in the form of restlessness, an irresistible desire to move, sometimes anxiety;
- dyskinesia: involuntary contractions of muscles of tongue, mouth area, swallowing and chewing muscles, creating the impression of continuous grimacing, chewing.
parkinsonian syndrome, akathisia reduced after reducing the dose of neuroleptics in which they occur, as well as the introduction of large doses of vitamins.For the prevention and treatment of these disorders are appointed antiparkinsonian agents.
Dyskinesia develops most often during chronic administration of neuroleptics and in elderly patients.Anti-Parkinsonian drugs help a little.Gradually decreasing the dose of neuroleptics, administered caffeine (subcutaneously), glucose with vitamins B and C, (iv), calcium chloride (IV), seduksen (intramuscularly).
dry mouth, accommodation disorders (difficulty reading) are quite common in the treatment of neuroleptics and antidepressants.The use of offsets reduces the symptoms.
urination difficulties observed in the application of anti-depressants, and sometimes neuroleptics.It is recommended to put a heating pad on the area of the bladder;sometimes requires bladder catheterization.
Dermatitis developing as a complication in the treatment of neuroleptic drugs.
in the face, on the inner parts of the skin of the forearm, the back of the arms and legs may appear makulezno-papular rash.It is necessary to decrease the dose of neuroleptics, diphenhydramine, calcium chloride introduced.
patients as well.medical personnel on the exposed parts of the body eczematous dermatitis may occur (itching, swelling, then makulezno-papular rash).
In some cases, in the feet and buttocks developed bullous dermatitis - large bubbles of clear liquid.neuroleptic treatment should be discontinued.
Hepatitis may develop at 2-5 weeks when used neuroleptics and antidepressants.Appointed by small doses of insulin, glucose, vitamins B and C.
changes in blood composition
eosinophilia, lymphocytosis and monocytosis may develop in the first weeks of treatment with neuroleptics and antidepressants.They pass on their own and specific therapeutic measures do not require.Long-term treatment may develop leukopenia and in rare cases - agranulocytosis.In these cases, dose reduction, or discontinuation of treatment with psychotropic drugs;appointed cortisone injections, vitamin B12, blood transfusions.
Data breaches include weight gain, menstrual disorders in women, delayed ejaculation in men, increase or decrease in sexual desire - are observed in the treatment with neuroleptics and antidepressants.Special therapeutic measures are not required.
Sleep disorders in the form of insomnia, disturbed sleep rhythm - wakefulness can occur during treatment with neuroleptics, antidepressants and psychostimulants.
depression as sadness, anxiety with less asthenic manifestations occur in the treatment of aliphatic derivatives of phenothiazine.It is necessary to reduce the dose.