metal carbonyls , poisoning
Occupational Diseases / / May 24, 2016
metal carbonyls are compounds with carbon monoxide metals: nickel, iron, cobalt, tungsten.nickel carbonyl - a pale yellow or colorless, readily mobile liquid, with the smell of smoke.Has extremely high volatility evaporates at room temperature, it boils at 42.3 C, a pair of explosive.MPC - 0.0005 mg / m3.Carbonyl iron or iron pentacarbonyl - liquid brown or yellow.Cobalt carbonyl - orange crystals.MPC for cobalt hydrocarbonyl and its decay products - 0.01 mg / m3.Hexacarbonyl tungsten - colorless crystals.The highest value in industry are iron and nickel carbonyls.
are used in the preparation of pure metals (nickel, iron) in the manufacture of special steels and alloys (nickel carbonyl), in the synthesis of organic and organometallic compounds.Cobalt carbonyl catalyst is used in the synthesis of certain substances, iron pentacarbonyl - both antiknock to the gasoline in admixture.The production conditions in the preparation and application of metal carbonyls has significant air pollution with carbon mon
most typical representative of this group is a carbonyl nickel.The latter (as well as other metal carbonyls) preferably enters the body through intact skin and lungs.Readily decomposed in the body to carbon monoxide and a metal, but may be stored in the undecomposed state for a relatively long time.It irritates mucous membranes, easily absorbed, circulates in the blood as a colloidal metal solution, kidneys and intestines part, acting in the liver thereof.
have a general toxic, irritant and sensitizing and carcinogenic effects (cancer of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and lungs).The toxic effect is due to the entire molecule.Nickel carbonyl is one of the so-called thiol poisons - binds thiol (sulfhydryl) group of cellular proteins, disrupting the activity of key enzymes, which explains its general toxic effect.
In acute poisoning leading carbonyl nickel is irritating, like nitrogen oxides action.Clinical symptoms of acute poisoning of nickel carbonyl develops after a latent period of 6-12 hours. In mild intoxication appear malaise, headache, hoarseness, cough, shortness of breath, chest tightness.Low-grade temperature, only occasionally rises to high and kept 1-2 days.The manifestations of mild acute intoxication nickel carbonyl similar to metal fever, but differ considerably more pronounced symptoms of intoxication and slower reverse development.
Diagnostics intoxication complicated by the similarity of acute respiratory diseases.In more severe cases, the symptoms of intoxication are increasing, there are signs of lung disease: shortness of breath, cyanosis, chest pain, shortness of breath.Headache, weakness, nausea, vomiting, bloating, palpitations.Heart sounds are muffled, tachycardia to 100-150 beats per 1 minute, the heart is enlarged.Breathing frequent, superficial, in the lungs auscultated dry and crackles.X-ray examination reveals signs of a toxic pulmonary edema, developing more slowly than in case of poisoning of nitrogen oxides.There is a failure of the diaphragm, which is expressed in high standing and its low mobility in breathing.These changes combined with symptoms of intoxication, which include toxic hepatitis, gastrointestinal disorders, and disorders of hypoxia in the tissue of the respiratory system enzymes.With deep hypoxia and disorders associated neurocirculatory pronounced changes in the myocardium ( "heart" type of intoxication).
during the acute (moderate to severe) intoxication nickel carbonyl prolonged (2-3 weeks. Or more), undulating, often complicated by toxic pneumonia.In the blood - leukocytosis up to the high, a sharp stab shift, expressed eosinophilia, anemia.
The earliest are the complaints of headaches to the end of the day or after work in a gas mask, dizziness, fatigue and irritability, sleep disturbance (difficulty falling asleep, unpleasant dreams).Initially, these phenomena are impermanent, are smoothed out after a short rest, and then become permanent, at times paroxysmal intensifying.Reduced capacity for work, increased irritability, and many complain of memory loss, loss of interest in entertainment.Frequent complaints of pain in the heart, often alone, at height of an inspiration.Objectively, there is a combination of neurasthenic syndrome, neuro dystonia of hypertensive type and myocardial dystrophy.Irritability nickel carbonyl vapors leads to a significant spread of upper respiratory tract lesions (especially inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses) and chronic bronchitis, often with a bronchospastic component.Along with these symptoms, and often on their own, develop toxic pulmonary fibrosis, which is characterized by a relatively early development, the possibility of "bezbronhitnogo" beginning with the clinic of pulmonary insufficiency and subsequent addition of inflammatory complications.Radiologically this enrichment expressed fibrosis and lung pattern roughness, sometimes with a small focal, point.The course is slowly progressive.Sometimes fibrosis progression continues after the transfer to another job.
Toxic liver disease (subclinical) confirmed violations of protein and lipoprotein metabolism.
diagnosis of chronic intoxication is established on the basis of dynamic observation in the presence of a combination of syndromes described in workers with experience of at least 5 years.Increased allocation of nickel in the urine confirms the diagnosis.Isolated development of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis in patients younger sufficient to establish the chronic toxicity of nickel carbonyl diagnosis.
Treatment In acute intoxication - bed rest, regardless of "lightness" of the first symptoms.Warming the patient.Under "carbonyl nickel fever" - intravenous glucose with ascorbic acid.If necessary - the oxygen of the heart.In chronic poisoning treatment is symptomatic, tonic, vitamin therapy.
After severe acute intoxication - medical certificate for 2 months.Spa treatment.Clinical supervision.If you have persistent residual symptoms or chronic poisoning - transfer to another (regular) work without dust, toxic substances.Possible disability.
Complete sealing of the production equipment and systematic monitoring of its condition.Thermal degassing of waste.Systematic coaching job, familiarization with the smell of carbonyl.Preliminary and periodic medical examinations.
should also be noted iron pentacarbonyl that regardless of the ways of getting into the body can cause toxic pulmonary edema, and tungsten carbonyl, causing prolonged contact trophic disorders of nails and skin (exfoliation, increased fragility of the nail).