Mental disorders with brain injuries
Mental Disorders / / April 19, 2016
Brain injuries are one of the most common forms of pathology and can be observed in everyday life, at work, in transport, in sports, in time of war.The nature of mental disorders in traumatic brain injury, the severity determined by the mechanism of injury, the presence of complicating factors, individual characteristics of the victim, current stage of traumatic disease.There are closed and open cranial trauma.
Closed injuries are divided into concussion (concussion) and contusions (bruises).At first dominated by the general phenomena associated with diffuse disease of the brain substance, of the second - local, depending on the damage to a certain area of the brain.During the traumatic disease are distinguished by initial, acute, late and remote periods.Depending on the severity of the injury in the initial period may be observed at different degrees of depth and duration of the shutdown of consciousness - from stunning light coma.Usually there are obschetserebralnye symptoms (dizziness, nausea, vom
In the acute phase patients with consciousness gradually becomes clear, however, for a long time, they are inhibited, lethargic, sleepy.Sometimes it can be observed the phenomenon of retrograde and anterograde amnesia.off states of consciousness can be replaced by others of his illness and then at this stage there are delirium, clouded state, rarely amentia, oneiric.Keep in mind that these patients need special supervision and care, as their inappropriate behavior during this period can be a danger to themselves and others.
In the later period on the background of cerebral asthenia under the influence of external influences can be observed isteroformnye and epileptiform seizures, twilight disorders of consciousness, hysterical and depressive states.Neurological symptoms gradually regresses or organized accordingly lesions.
The period long-term effects observed in patients with symptoms of neurosis.They are increased irritability, quickly get tired, can not tolerate strong smells, sounds.Reduces efficiency, concentration of attention, memory.Often marked sleep disturbances, chronic headaches, dizziness, tinnitus, tremor, tongue and limbs.In the future, some patients in this background may experience seizures, psychotic states with hallucinations, delusions, severe affective disorders.When bruises, accompanied by significant damage to the brain tissue, in a period of long-term effects can be observed a sharp decline in mental abilities, memory.In these cases, they talk about the traumatic dementia.
With open cranial trauma noted in general similar to the dynamics of pathological disorders.If the injury is accompanied by an open penetrating (in violation of the integrity of the dura mater) damage to the brain substance, intracerebral infection can be complicated by the disease.Complications in the form of meningitis, meningoencephalitis, brain abscesses usually occur immediately, but in the acute or late period.At the same time with the picture observed psychosis or delirium amentia.