Poisoning with gasoline
Occupational Diseases / / May 23, 2016
petrols - a mixture of methane, naphthenic, aromatic and unsaturated hydrocarbons - are clear, colorless or yellow, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor.
Gasolines are mainly used as fuel for engines, as well as a solvent and diluent in the rubber and paint industries, the extraction of vegetable seed oils and cakes, fat from bones and so forth.
To increase the octane number of gasoline added various componentsfuel (from 5 to 40%). isooctane, alkylates, benzene, etc. Besides, in gasolines usually contain sulfur compounds and sulfur (from 0.05 to 0.3%).
Maximum allowable concentration for gasoline-solvent - 300 mg / m3 for fuel petrol - 100 mg / m3.
Toxic gasoline is determined by the combined effect of its component hydrocarbons.The most toxic aromatic hydrocarbons;less toxic naphthenic hydrocarbons and methane.
mainly gasoline causes damage to the central nervous system (drug effect), and irritation of eyes and upper respiratory tract.Various additives increase its toxicity.With
gasoline vapors enter the body and excreted through the lungs.Gasoline can be absorbed through intact skin.Possible poisoning when it enters the gastrointestinal tract.
Acute poisoning can occur when cleaning tanks, tanks for cleaning of oil tankers, the transfusion of gasoline in small rooms, with air painting, oil extraction in case of accidents and other equipment.Chronic poisoning possible when using gasoline as fuel (petrol stations, garages), or in a solvent (for example, rubber, footwear industry).
For short inhalation of gasoline vapors (concentration - 5000-10000 mg / m3) in a few minutes there is a headache, discomfort in the throat, coughing, irritation of the eyes, nose, redness of the skin.A longer stay in this atmosphere causes dizziness, unsteady gait, mental stimulation.Sometimes delirium develops rapidly changing states of apathy, lethargy and depression.The first signs of acute poisoning gasoline vapors are also lowering body temperature and blood pressure, slow pulse.
When exposed to the body of higher concentrations of gasoline vapor (15,000-20,000 mg / m3), possible loss of consciousness;may appear tremor of fingers, eyelids, tongue, fibrillar twitching of muscles, motor excitation, convulsions, dilated pupils, jaundice of the sclera, bleeding in the skin, sclera, the lability of heart, deaf tones the heart, easing breathing, blood in the sputum, liver enlargement, a moderate increasebody temperature, in the urine - and protein urobilin.Exhaled air has the smell of gasoline.Perhaps the development of toxic pneumonia.Even higher concentrations of gasoline (35 000-40 000 mg / m3) can cause instant death.
consequences of acute poisoning can be headaches, dizziness, seizures, anxiety, hallucinations, retrograde and anterograde amnesia.Long may experience autonomic disorders, thermoregulation.As the long-term consequences may develop an organic disease of the central nervous system (rare).
Persons suffering from disorders of the central and autonomic nervous system, thyrotoxicosis, cardiovascular diseases, tuberculosis and pregnant women are more sensitive to the effects of gasoline.
poisoning through gasoline
mouth when sucking in gasoline through the hose mouth possible ingestion and aspiration of his.Immediately begins a sharp painful cough up vomiting that lasts 20-30 minutes.Vomiting and abdominal pain may also occur by the simultaneous ingestion of gasoline.Sometimes there is blood in the sputum.
After non-durable asymptomatic period (2-6-8 hours, in some cases up to 2 days) develops pleuropneumonia (so-called gasoline pneumonia): a sharp pain in his side (usually the right), which does not allow to take a deep breath, difficulty breathing, coughing.Headache, dizziness, weakness, chills.Lips cyanosis, tachycardia, shortness of breath - 36-40 per minute, the right half of the chest when breathing is lagging behind.Increase in body temperature to 39 HS.
the first day any changes in the lungs is not defined.On the second day - pronounced cyanosis with some purple tinge, shortness of breath, shortening of percussion tones weakened breath with bronchial shade, moist areas of wheezing, pleural friction.By the end of the first day of leukocytosis (up to 17-109 / L), and able to grow in the next 2-3 days, stab shift, increased ESR.On the 3-4th day feel better, the temperature drops to normal or subfebrile digits disappear cyanosis, dyspnea, tachycardia.
radiologically after 1-2 hours after intoxication revealed a homogeneous intense shade (in the majority of cases in the right lung) in front nizhnemedialnom department with a clear upper boundary drawn, located na III-IV rib and lubricate the outside contour (middle lobe or damagethe anterior part of the bottom).There atelectasis affected parts of the lung.Lung injury is reduced in size, sealed, mediastinal organs, particularly the heart and large vessels, are moved to the side of the patient, but on the sound is marked swelling of the lung.
Clinical recovery occurs in the 8-12 day.However rentgenomorfologicheskie changes hold up to 26 days.Complications (lung abscess, pulmonary hemorrhage, pleural effusion) are infrequent.
When gasoline gets into the stomach poisoning occurs as acute gastroenteritis.
Chronic (and sub-acute) poisoning gasoline manifested complaints of dizziness, headache, drowsiness or insomnia, irritability, lethargy, easy fatigability, weight loss, numbness and information toes, cramps in the calf muscles, pain in the heart and in the right upper quadrant,digestive disorders.
Objective: functional disorders of the nervous system that occur with a change of state of mental excitement or depression, often with a tendency to hysterical reactions of nature;autonomic disturbances (hypotension, etc.), tremor of fingers outstretched hands, eyelids, tongue, staggering with the eyes closed.Chronic catarrh of the upper respiratory tract (rhinitis down smell, laryngitis, bronchitis), conjunctivitis, gastritis, duodenitis.
possible liver dysfunction.In the blood - moderate anemia, leukopenia with relative lymphocytosis, increased ESR.Perhaps strengthening the thyroid function.Cases of bronchial asthma.Do women have menstrual irregularities.When pregnancy is often marked toxicosis in the milk of nursing mothers - a decrease in body fat.There are indications that babies are reluctant to take the breast of mothers working with gasoline.
At regular contact of the skin of hands with gasoline may develop acute and chronic skin diseases (dermatitis, folliculitis, eczema, etc.), Which favors the emergence of gasoline ability to dissolve sebum, which causes dryness of the skin with the formation of cracks on it.
Emergency care and treatment
Acute inhalation poisoning - fresh air, oxygen, carbogen, heart and sedatives (bromides, valerian).If unconscious - a horizontal position with a slightly bowed head.Inhalation of ammonia (with fleece).Subcutaneous - caffeine or kordiamin.If breathing stops - apply artificial respiration, a respiratory analeptic.Adrenaline and adrenomimeticheskih agents is contraindicated.Emergency hospitalization.
When gasoline gets into the stomach - a liquid mineral oil inside (30-50 g), cautious gastric lavage marshy probe (risk of aspiration of wash water and the development of toxic pneumonia) before the disappearance of the smell of gasoline in the wash liquid.Do not induce vomiting artificially and administered emetics.
In chronic poisoning carried syndromic, restorative treatment, it is better in sanatorium conditions.
In uncomplicated cases of acute poisoning ability to work is fully restored ..
In chronic poisoning treatment is indicated, temporary suspension from work with gasoline.At the expressed intoxication - inpatient treatment, then transfer to a regular job that is not related to the impact of gasoline.
When working in an atmosphere with a high concentration of gasoline (with the risk of acute poisoning), you must use the hose gas masks, protective clothing.To protect the skin of hands apply a paste type of "biological gloves", other protective ointment.Lubrication skin creams and ointments hands after work.
In an atmosphere with a high concentration of gasoline is prohibited to work alone.It is strictly forbidden sucked gasoline by mouth.