Occupational Diseases / / May 23, 2016
acid is used very widely -. For the production of a number of other acids, for metal etching, in the metallurgy of non-ferrous and rare metals in the synthesis of many organic substances in the manufacture of dyes, fertilizers, explosives, etc. Couples acids enter the body through inhalation.Possible acid intake through the mouth - accidentally or with suicidal purpose.It turns sharply irritating and cauterizing effect on the mucous membranes and skin, cause burns, coagulation necrosis of tissue proteins.It is very dangerous to hit in the eye.Acids also have and resorptive effect.The development of acute renal failure, in particular after oral administration of acetic acid - a sharp hemolysis, renal tubule occlusion blocks disintegrated erythrocytes.Reducing immunobiological reactivity of the organism.
Acute poisoning by inhalation of vapors and mists acids (symptoms)
irritation of the upper respiratory tract, conjunctiva.At high concentrations - vomiting blood, pneumonia.
Acute acids through the mo
breath.Possible burns the lips, skin, chin.If you get burned by nitric acid - a yellowish coloration of the lips, corners of the mouth, tongue;with burns sulfuric and hydrochloric - blackish, acetic - white.Severe burns to the oral mucosa, pharynx, esophagus, stomach.Sudden chest pain (along the esophagus), in the epigastric region.Painful vomiting blood.Hoarseness, can spasm and laryngeal edema.Hematuria, albuminuria, anuria.Pain shock.Collapse.As a complication - perforated peritonitis.
Chronic poisoning (symptoms)
conjunctival irritation, mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, hypertrophic and atrophic rhinitis, possibly ulceration and perforation of the nasal septum;laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis with bronchospastic component Asthma (sulfuric acid).
defeat of teeth - the appearance of brown spots pas incisors (hydrochloric acid), the destruction of teeth crowns.Concentrated solutions of acids for the skin cauterizing way, it is difficult to develop deep-healing sores of the "bird's eye".
When acid poisoning through the mouth - stomach wash with warm water.Vegetable oil (sunflower, olive) sips to 200 g per day (1 to 100 g reception).If gastric lavage can not be done, to give the patient drink 3-5 glasses of warm water and induce vomiting by artificial means.Emetic contraindicated.Inside - magnesium oxide (magnesia) 20.0: 200.0, lime milk, whipped egg whites, slimy concoctions.
If poisoning hydrofluoric acid and citric acid - into calcium chloride.If poisoning oxalic acid - 10 ml of a 10% solution of calcium chloride, gluconate or intravenously 2 times per day.At the same time - diuretics to prevent blockage of the urinary tubules of calcium oxalate crystals.Diuretics shown in poisoning and acetic acid, calcium chloride - with sulfuric acid poisoning.
When gastric bleeding, shows the introduction of plasma (100 ml) or blood transfusion (200-300 ml).To eliminate the pain - into 0.25% solution of novocaine tablespoons, promedola injection omnopona with atropine.If acidosis
- intravenously, then drip 300-500 ml of 5% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution, drip enema to 2 liters per day.To prevent infection - antibiotics.The roasted
mucous membrane of the mouth and throat lubricated with 2% solution of novocaine.In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with wide-eyed gentle stream of cold water, then drip 1-2 drops of 2% solution of novocaine or 0.5% tetracaine solution with 0.1% epinephrine solution and put into the conjunctival sac of sterile liquid paraffin or peach butter.
Skin contact should be immediately washed off abundant running water for 10 minutes, you can use soap, weak solution (0.5-1%) alkalis.When you burn for 1-2 days bandage with 2-3% solution of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda).
acute severe poisoning can lead to serious complications (chronic bronchitis, chronic pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis, corneal damage, scar skin changes);by oral poisoning - violation of the structure and function of the esophagus and stomach.Perhaps a persistent disabilities.
Effective ventilation.Wearing a mask;overalls made of acid fabrics, boots, goggles or masks and shields made of plexiglass.Marking dishes containing strong acids.Careful instruction work.