Occupational Diseases / / May 23, 2016
main source of energy in the human body are oxidation processes that take place with the participation of oxygen.Breath - the main manifestations of life - is a very complex act that is carried out a number of systems and organs.There are external and internal breathing.Respiratory function is the oxygenation of the blood.Oxygen saturation occurs in the lungs and obeys the laws of diffusion.oxygen delivery to cells and tissues of the body is provided with blood.The main carrier of oxygen hemoglobin is 3-5% of the total weight of oxygen are dissolved in the blood plasma.It is extremely important in the supply of oxygen to tissues is the normal operation of the circulatory system, blood circulation in the capillary system.
final stage in the process of breathing - the absorption of oxygen by cells (internal respiration).Utilization of oxygen is carried out using a complex intracellular redox system involving a large number of enzymes.
Insufficient blood oxygen content designated by the terms "hypoxia",
Types of hypoxia
are the following forms of hypoxia:
1. Hypoxic hypoxia (respiratory, pulmonary arterial) - lack of oxygen in the arterial blood.Considered as the most serious and most common form of hypoxia.Possible causes:
A. Inadequate supply of oxygen from the environment:
a) at a low partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired air,
b) changing the composition of the air inhaled significant admixtures of various gases (methane, nitrogen, etc.)..
B. undersaturated oxygenated blood in violation of gas exchange in the lungs due to develop in them a pathological process - pulmonary edema, pneumonia, etc.
2. hematic (blood) hypoxia -. Lack of oxygen in the arterial blood, due to a violation of the respiratory properties of the blood(oxygen transport hemoglobin violation).
A. Reduction of the total hemoglobin in the blood (blood loss, intravascular hemolysis) - the anemic type.
B. Reducing the number of active hemoglobin (the formation of carboxy, metric or sulfgemoglobina) toxic form.
3. Circulatory (stagnant) hypoxia. oxygen content of arterial blood sufficient, but owing to impaired circulation oxygen is not supplied to the tissues in the proper amount.
4. histotoxic (tissue) hypoxia - inadequate utilization of oxygen to tissues as a result of violations of redox processes in the cell, due to blockage of the respiratory enzymes.
stand out as mixed forms of hypoxia:.. Arterio-circulatory, hematic, fabric, etc.
When oxygen deficiency in the body reflexively raise a number of compensatory reactions: rapid breathing, heart activity, an increase in the circulating blood mass, increased erythropoiesis, etc. However.with more severe hypoxia, these mechanisms are not sufficient.The most sensitive to oxygen starvation of the central nervous system.
Acute and chronic hypoxia
condition with acute hypoxia like intoxication - headache, dizziness, loss of coordination of movements, weakness, euphoria, alternating with depression, loss of consciousness.Hypoxia of myocardium with the development of anginal pain, increased capillary permeability, hyperventilation and associated hypocapnia, degenerative changes in the liver and kidney, blood clots, metabolic disorders, the accumulation in the body of incomplete combustion products, and others. Thus, hypoxia causes a profound violation of all lifeprocesses in the body.Effect of hypoxia on the body depends on the rate of development, the degree and duration of the hypoxic state, and the reactivity of the organism.High ambient temperature aggravates hypoxia.Effects of acute hypoxia may be varied and very heavy.
Chronic hypoxia can occur with prolonged stay in the mountains neakklimatizirovannyh persons.
development of chronic hypoxia in chronic lung disease depends on the morphological changes in the past and related functional disorders of external respiration.Rise of hypoxia is accompanied by circulatory failure with subsequent development of the most severe complications - pulmonary heart.
When significant chronic hypoxia marked drowsiness, memory disturbances, confusion, irritability, depression, trouble sleeping with unpleasant dreams, rapid physical and mental fatigue, marked cyanosis, dyspnea, tachycardia, profound metabolic disorders, electrolyte, vitamin balance and others.
in the clinic of occupational diseases hypoxia is often a leading syndrome in the picture of the disease.For almost all industrial acute intoxication and acute and even the "lightning" occurs anoxia, which immediately creates a life-threatening condition.In the future, the role of hypoxia becomes pathogenic factor in the development of a number of painful events, weighing the disease.Chronic hypoxia develops in many chronic intoxications and diseases.
To increase the body's resistance to hypoxia and restore disturbed functions of a number of recommended vitamins and a diet rich in carbohydrates.Chronic hypoxia shows the use of oxygen therapy in combination with diakarbom.Last reduces the concentration of carbon dioxide and has a diuretic effect.In the fight against hypoxia-oxygen therapy goes beyond the symptomatic and assumes the character of a causal therapy.