Chemical fibers harmful properties
Occupational Diseases / / May 23, 2016
Chemical fibers manufactured in the form of strands of infinite length (silk cord), or in the form of cut tow (staple).Divided into artificial (rayon, acetate fibers, etc.) And synthetic (polyamide, polyester, polyacrylonitrile, etc.).
Synthetic fibers are obtained by chemical processing of natural polymers, mainly cellulose.The main raw material in the production of viscose, cuprammonium and acetate fiber is wood and cotton cellulose.In the production of synthetic fibers used petroleum products, coal and natural gas, which is then subjected to polymerization.The adverse effect of chemical fiber mainly due to the presence of intermediate substances emitted into the air of industrial premises.
In the production of viscose fibers cellulose is treated with carbon disulfide and vypryadayut fibers from solutions of cellulose xanthate in alkali (viscose).In the air, chemical plants contains a pair of carbon disulfide, and spinning and finishing shops, in addition, and hydrogen sulfide released during the
cuprammonium fibers spinning solutions are prepared by mixing cellulose with an aqueous ammonia, basic copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide.Occupational hazards are evolved ammonia fumes.
Acetate fibers are cellulose esters and acetic acid.Are used in their manufacture, acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and as solvent for the preparation of spinning solutions - acetone and methylene chloride.When forming fibers by wet process used methanol or aqueous acetone solutions.Most of these substances can pollute the air of industrial premises.
In the production of polyamide fiber nylon (nylon, Perlon, Silon) feedstock is subjected to polymerizing the monomer - caprolactam, and in the production of fiber Anida (66 nylon, Perlon T) - the so-called salt hypertension.The air of production facilities and aerosols vapors are caprolactam, hexamethylene diamine and a mixture of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide used as the high boiling point coolant.
Symptoms of intoxication nylon fibers are characterized by phenomena of irritating and toxic action.Complaints of headaches, irritability, fatigue, sweating, loss of appetite, insomnia, memory loss, weight loss, sometimes the "flicker" in the eyes of a change in body position, pain in the heart.OBJECTIVE: asthenovegetative syndrome with symptoms of neuro dystonia hypotonic type.Functional disorders of the liver, disorders of the secretory function of the stomach and acid-forming.Dermatitis.In the production of nylon fibers workers observed menstrual irregularities.
Polyester fiber Dacron (Terylene, Dacron) prepared from polyethylene terephthalate.The starting raw materials are dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol.During manufacture formed diglycolic ester of terephthalic acid and methyl alcohol.
Symptoms of intoxication: vegetative-vascular dysfunction, sometimes in combination with vegetative-sensitive polyneuritis.Tendency to hypertension.Abnormal liver function, a tendency to anemia and leukopenia.When manufacturing
nitrone fiber (Orlon, acrylic, PAN volkrilon) used polyacrylonitrile derived from acrylonitrile and the polymer solvent - dimethylformamide.In the air of industrial premises are allocated a pair of dimethylformamide, which has irritating properties, and also affects the central nervous system and parenchymal organs.
in the air of industrial premises may contain a pair of acrylonitrile, and dimethylformamide.Among workers distributed functional diseases of the nervous system (most vegetative-vascular dysfunction, rarely asthenovegetative syndrome, neurasthenic syndrome);possible diencephalic pathology.Myocardiodystrophy, gastritis;moderate hypochromic anemia, reticulocytopenia.This pathology may partly be due to the action of dimethylformamide.
fiber production vinola (vinylon, kuralon) based on the processing in the threads of polyvinyl alcohol.Occupational hazard of this production is formaldehyde, used to make fiber resistance to water treatments.