Carcinogenic , teratogenic and mutagenic effects of industrial poisons
Occupational Diseases / / May 23, 2016
Many substances of different chemical nature are capable of under the influence of a person to cause malignant transformation cells (carcinogenic, or blastomogenic action), violations of the fetus (teratogenic or fetotoxic effect), the genetic code of damage (mutagenic effects).
Professional malignancies are well known and have been observed in working with the furnace soot, coal tar, paraffin, mineral oil, aniline dyes, and others. The increase in the incidence of lung cancer associated with the presence of carcinogenic substances, in particular, 3,4-benziprena, in the smoke of the industrial enterprisesand exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, air pollutants.
carcinogenic activity identified for many substances having a different chemical structure.The most important group of some carcinogens are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and as well as hydrocarbons containing phenanthrene moiety.With the presence of these groups are related properties of oil and its products, diesel fuel, mineral oi
Among aromatic aminoazosoedineny strong carcinogenic properties have ortoaminoazotoluol, benzidine, hlorbenzidin, 2-naphthylamine, aminodiphenyl, 2-2 azonaftilamin.Under the influence of these carcinogens can cause cancer of the liver and bladder.2-naphthylamine (P-naphthylamine) is the main reason, so-called aniline neoplasms of the urinary tract, observed from working in aniline industry;3 metilaminoazobenzol are the most powerful hepatocarcinogs azo dyes.Professional
cause respiratory cancer chromium compound (particularly potassium dichromate and chromic anhydride), arsenic, nickel (usually nasal cancer), iron (especially iron oxide), beryllium, cadmium, cobalt.Lung cancer and mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum may occur under the influence of asbestos, particularly crocidolite minerals.Selectivity
location of the lesion under the influence of certain blastomogenic apparently largely determined by their biological fate in the body.
different agents exert their carcinogenic properties at various stages of contact with the body.Many polycyclic carcinogens cause cancer at the site of their primary exposure (skin and respiratory).Other substances, such as aromatic amine compounds, by themselves are not blastomogenic.In this regard, in the ways they are received in the body do not develop tumors.However formed during the conversion of (mainly in the liver) blastomogonnymi metabolites have strong properties.Standing out in the urine and, probably, concentrating it, these substances cause not only a liver tumor, and bladder.
to display the action of carcinogens characterized by a latent period of varying duration.The duration of the latter to a certain extent determined by the total dose.The prevailing view is that none of the dose of a carcinogen, even the minimum, does not pass in vain for the body, that is. E. There is a "no-threshold blastomogenic effect".The higher the initial concentration, the shorter the period of latency.Cancer caused by mineral oils, often appear after 12-15 years of occupational exposure.Tar tar and skin cancer may occur through 2,5-30 years.The latent period when "aniline" bladder cancer is between 4 and 48 years with more than 50% of it is 11-16 years.
large role in the realization of the effect blastomogenic play different "modifying factors" that contribute to the penetration of carcinogens in the body, and a long delay in their tissues.These include non-carcinogenic air pollution (including various types of dust, particularly fine-structure) that increase their solubility or adsorption of carcinogens;violation of protective and drainage function of bronchial epithelium, the delay elimination of carcinogens, and others.
Contributing to professional cancer moments are mechanical and thermal damage (for example, cases of acute resin skin cancer are described after the burn), chronic inflammation, scarring, and so on. n.,as well as some bad habits: smoking, chewing tobacco, a variety of aromatic resins and pass.
appearance of occupational cancer is usually preceded prekantseroznye disease.So, to precancerous skin diseases include dermatitis (papular, pustular), photodermatitis, folliculitis, hyperkeratosis, warts, melasma;a precancerous pathology lips and mouth - dyskeratosis, recurrent sores, papillomas.Occupational cancer are known by their morphologic and flow pattern is different from the lay malignancies.
By virtue blastomogenic activity and a real danger to humans are distinguished:
1) strong carcinogens:
a) definitely cause cancer in humans and animals (3.4-benzpyrene, benzidine, p-naphthylamine, 4-aminodiphenyl);
b) substances which are carcinogenic effect established in experiments on animals in 80-100% of cases, and in a short time - 4-6 months (some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons amnno- and nitroso compounds, fluorene derivatives, stilbene);
2) average carcinogens - carcinogenic activity is established in the experiment 20-30% of the animals in the second half of life;
3) weak carcinogens - induce experimental tumors with a slightly greater frequency than in the control animals;data on their oncogenic activity inconsistent.
Teratogenecity poisons manifested the ability to cause persistent structural, functional and biochemical changes in the fetus, resulting in congenital abnormalities or deformities.
teratogenic effects may be direct (as a result of penetration through the placenta) and indirect (caused by poisoning his mother, leading to disruption of embryogenesis).The sensitivity of the fetus to the venom depends on the duration of pregnancy.The most vulnerable in the fruit of the so-called critical periods that precede certain stages of embryogenesis (for humans - the first weeks of pregnancy).
spontaneous abortions, premature births, stillbirths, malformations of the fetus and the newborn were found in women exposed to gasoline, benzene, carbon disulfide, mercury, lead and other industrial poisons.
Information about the mutagenic action of industrial poisons on human still limited.Genetic risk to the offspring of mammals proved only for a few industrial poisons (ethyleneimine, benzene, dimethylnitrosamine, mercury compounds, lead and some others).Disorders of the genetic code may occur after a long period of time, the length of this period may be different.
There is a definite correlation between the severity of carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic properties.This pattern is found, for example, in respect of substances having alkylating properties (ethyleneimine, diazomethane, nitrogen mustard, some nitroso compounds, and others.).Many of them are both allergens, such as the toxic products of the tobacco production.
fight with professional malignant tumors, as well as the possible teratogenic and mutagenic effect of poisons carried out by a variety of recreational activities that are specifically designed depending on the characteristics of production, state of the art and the nature of the carcinogenic agent.
question of regulation blastomogenic substances still remains theoretically and practically solved.From the hygienic point of view, the ideal solution to the issue is the complete elimination of carcinogenic substances in the air of industrial areas and the prevention of all types of contact working with them.This applies primarily to the strong carcinogens.Therefore, where possible, being replaced in process of carcinogens to non-carcinogenic (e.g., benzene, other solvents; a-naphthylamine containing admixture B-naphthylamine in the synthesis of a-naphthol is replaced by tetralin), in some cases, it prohibited their production.
In Russia banned the production of p-naphthol, 3,3-dichlorobenzidine.In some productions carried dekantserogenizatsiya carcinogenic agent (via, for example, high-frequency currents) in the raw material, by-products or finished products.
In connection with the ever-increasing use of a variety of chemical compounds, including a variety of synthetic products in industry, agriculture, daily life, as food additives, and so on. G., Has an important preventative measure to determine their carcinogenic activity.
Along with technical and sanitary measures, carried out medical and health prevention measures.It is recommended to carry out a careful selection and registration of contingent workers, the so-called risk groups are in contact with a known or potentially carcinogenic agents.These contingents are subject to periodic medical examinations with the participation of oncologists, and, if necessary - other doctors (dermatologists, urologists and others.).Of great importance in the prevention of occupational tumors is timely detection of precancerous disease.In identifying the latter should be carried out and immediate treatment if necessary - suspension from work-related exposure to carcinogenic agents.Given the long latency period of cancer development professional recommendations on hiring in some industries people aged 40-45 years.
To prevent teratogenic and mutagenic effect is important release of pregnant women from exposure to toxic substances.