Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
Cadmium - a silvery-white metal.Cadmium sulfate - colorless crystals.Cadmium oxide - brown powder.Cadmium caprylate, cadmium stearate - yellowish powder.Cadmium is widely used in various industries for the manufacture of low-melting alloy in the production of alkaline batteries, and so on. E., Is used as a neutron absorber in uranium reactors.Cadmium salts are used for the manufacture of paints, for electrolytic cadmium plating of metals.
cadmium oxide (in the form of vapor or smoke) occurs in the melting of zinc and cadmium, with electrofusion with cadmium electrodes and so on. D. Caprylate and cadmium stearate used as stabilizers of polymers.MPC cadmium oxide and cadmium stearate - 0.1 mg / m3.
cadmium compounds enter the body through the respiratory system and digestive tract in the form of cadmium fumes or dust of its compounds.Cadmium is a long delay in the lung tissue and is excreted primarily through the intestines, kidneys partially, but very slowly;is deposited in bone, endocrine glands, the
In acute poisoning by dust or smoke cadmium monoxide poisoning symptoms usually appear after 10-36 hours (sometimes after 30 minutes - 2 hours).cadmium monoxide is odorless and does not have a direct irritating effect, so even large inhalation of cadmium oxide concentrations there is not always working.The latent period may appear pain in the forehead, dizziness, nausea, pallor, pain in the epigastric region, a sweet taste in the mouth.Then the picture of acute diffuse bronchiolitis and tracheobronchitis with bouts of painful spasmodic cough with phlegm, shortness of breath and severe cyanosis.More often joined toxic pneumonia (often hemorrhagic) and pulmonary edema.With a favorable outcome - a slow recovery.In severe forms of poisoning possible death from pulmonary edema or pneumonia, usually for 3-5 day.
Lay (oral) poisoning are possible as a result of the preparation or preservation of food or drink cadmium in the container.Poisoning, in this case proceeds according to the type of severe food infection - nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, collapse (death is possible within the first hour).
Early symptoms are: rhinitis ( "cadmium runny nose"), decreased sense of smell, until anosmia, yellow-gold ring-gum stain in the neck of the tooth ( "cadmium fringe"), headaches, dizziness, seizures, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, irritability, tearfulness, heart pain, joint pain, dry throat, a sweet taste in the mouth, thirst, seizures, pain in the stomach, nausea, weight loss.
With further development of intoxication appear nosebleeds, erosions and crusts on the nasal mucosa, ulceration and perforation of the nasal septum, chronic, mostly atrophic, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, diffuse progressive fibrosis with signs of increasing oxygen deficiency, neurasthenic syndrome with vegetative disorders, gastrointestinal-kishechnye disorders, liver disease, general fatigue and cachexia.Slowly developing nephropathy with primary lesion of the proximal part of the tubules.
frequent complaints of sharp pain in the pelvis, lumbar spine and limb bones epiphysis.The X-ray - signs of decalcification (transverse grooves on the blades, the femur and tibia bones and pelvis).Violation of protein metabolism manifested decreasing albumin level.Typically urine protein excretion (4 g in 1 liter of urine) with a relative low molecular weight (20000-30000) containing globulins greater than albumin, as well as increasing the number of amino acid and uric acid.
in peripheral blood often mild hypochromic anemia or increasing the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin (a compensatory response to the evolving oxygen deficiency).The sharp increase of ESR (70 mm / h).There was a predisposition to tuberculosis.
Chronic intoxication expressly poor prognosis.Lung disease often progresses despite discontinuation of work with cadmium.
disability When the initial symptoms of chronic poisoning shows transfer to temporary employment, not associated with exposure to cadmium compounds, and appropriate treatment.In recurrent intoxication, or there are significant changes in the lungs, liver, kidney, skeletal system - suspension from work with cadmium and its compounds.Perhaps a persistent limit disability (disability).
Individual protections: goggles, coveralls, rubber gloves, aprons, work respirators.Rinse mouth - during and after work.Organization of preventive inhaler.Preliminary and periodic medical.