Diseases of the upper respiratory tract professional etiology ( disease from exposure to dust and toxic substances irritating )
Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
As a result of years of work in a dusty develop hypertrophic, subatrophic or atrophic changes in the mucous of the upper respiratory tract (rhinitis, rhinopharyngitis).
often affects the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, at least - the pharynx and even less often - the larynx.With the increase of professional experience growing incidence of atrophic forms (due to the transition process in hypertrophic atrophic).The latter are particularly common among workers exposed to dust having irritating properties (cement, chromium, arsenic, fluorine, etc..).The disease develops very slowly and gradually.Often combined with chronic lesions of the bronchial tubes and lungs.
nonspecific clinical picture.Communication disorders profession is established after a thorough acquaintance with the professional history of the patient, the sanitary conditions of its operation and data prior and periodic medical examinations, which can trace the dynamics of the disease.
effects of fumes or dust chemic
complaints of dryness in the nose and throat, coughing, crusting, sometimes nosebleeds.Nasal mucosa and the posterior pharyngeal wall dry, thinned, often covered with viscous mucus crusts.In the propagation of atrophic process to the larynx joined complaints hoarseness, discomfort and pain in the throat.At laryngoscopy the larynx mucosa is dry on the vocal folds of viscous mucus, sometimes peel.
For stage I ulcer process (erosion) is characterized by superficial ulceration of the mucosa, usually occurs in the anterior nasal septum.Erosion can be single or multiple, located on one or both sides of the nasal septum.Pain erosion, usually not cause, but is sometimes accompanied by epistaxis.
progresses in its development, erosion deepens and turns into an ulcer.This stage II ulcer process.This frequent nosebleeds.
III stage - the perforation of the nasal septum.It is always located in the cartilaginous portion of the latter, it has an oval or round shape.The size of the perforation can be a point, but sometimes it is very large and takes up the entire cartilage of the nasal septum.The emergence of the perforation is often preceded by copious nosebleeds and pain in the back of the nose;possibly asymptomatic.
Alkaline oil inhalation, infusion in the throat and nose of peach, olive oil and vaseline oil, oil solutions of vitamins A and D. In atrophic processes are recommended iodine-glycerine and hydrogen sulfide inhalation and inhalation of aerosols and elektroaerozoley alkalis, helps cleansedust the airway and its excretion from the body.Local treatment should be combined with tonic (UVR, hydrotherapy, a vitamin).
disability When expressed atrophic changes in the pharynx and larynx is recommended to transfer to another job, not associated with exposure to large amounts of dust and irritants.Persons who have found erosion in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, asymptomatic, can continue to work, but need careful medical supervision (inspection ENT specialist at least 1 time per month) and the appropriate treatment.
the presence of erosion, accompanied by bleeding from the nose, or sores on the need to translate the time (up to 2 months), the work is not associated with exposure to irritants.With full reverse development of a pathological process, the patient can be returned to their previous work, but with recurrent disease requires a change of profession.
Emerging nasal septum perforation requires constant management of employment (for the period of re-training may be provided by the professional nature of the disability group III).
quite finished, scarred nasal septum perforation is not a contraindication to continue working.
Lubrication anterior nasal mucosa indifferent ointment, inhalation mixtures of vitamins with diphenhydramine, bicarbonate solution and sodium chloride, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide inhalation.Using special respirators, masks.Preliminary and periodic medical examinations.