Female labor.Influence of occupational factors on the female body
Occupational Diseases / / May 21, 2016
Influence of unfavorable occupational factors can affect the so-called specific functions of the female body - ovarian-menstrual and fertility, as well as in the progeny.In addition, the female body as a whole, in some cases it is more susceptible to occupational hazards than men.The latter is due to his anatomical and physiological characteristics, and social conditions (large household load).This calls for special measures for women's health and safety.
From the specific functions of the female body more sensitive to the harmful (including toxic) effects is the ovarian-menstrual.Its violations occur frequently and are usually the earliest.In malostazhirovannyh workers who have contact with toxic substances, it is observed mainly gipermenstrualny syndrome (menorrhagia, increased monthly), while at the workers with many years often take place gipomenoreya and other symptoms of fading of ovarian function.This pattern seems to reflect a certain Phase exposure to toxic substances (prove
Violations of ovarian-menstrual function were observed in women working in contact with lead, mercury, arsenic, yellow phosphorus, trinitrotoluene, benzene and its homologues, nicotine, carbon disulfide, phenol, formaldehyde, manganese, trichlorethylene, antimony, hexachlorane have workers refineriesand superphosphate factories, in the production of nylon fibers.
important to emphasize that menstrual dysfunction is sometimes observed when exposed to low concentrations of toxic substances;they may not be accompanied by overall picture of intoxication, representing in these cases only, and the earliest manifestation of toxic effects.
adverse impact of toxic substances on the reproductive function can manifest itself in various forms.
infertility described with intoxication with lead, mercury, arsenic, those working in contact with petrol, benzene, phthalic anhydride, chlorinated hydrocarbons.
Pathological course of pregnancy and childbirth (toxicosis of pregnancy, threatening miscarriage, premature or rapid delivery, premature discharge of water, and vice versa - uterine inertia, uterine atony, leading to bleeding in the III stage of labor) observed a significantly increased frequency in working with lead,mercury, arsenic, benzene, gasoline, styrene, carbon disulfide, trichlorethylene, as well as workers in the production of nylon fibers, synthetic rubber, have elektrosvarschits.
adverse effects on the fetus due to the penetration of toxic substances through the placental barrier.The ability of such penetration proved to lead, mercury, phosphorous, fluoride, benzene, trinitrotoluene, nicotine, carbon monoxide, benzene, cadmium, antimony, carbon disulfide, chloroprene, a number of pesticides.As a result it may be an increased frequency of stillbirths, birth of children of non-viable (high infant mortality in the first days or weeks after birth) deformities.In addition, for a number of toxic substances (lead, mercury, fluorides, arsenic, antimony, benzene, carbon disulfide, mercury and organochlorines et al.) Demonstrated the possibility of penetration into the milk, which adversely affects the function of lactation (reduction of it, reducing the number ofmilk and change its quality and taste, causing the child's rejection of the breast) and on the child's condition.
proved experimentally the possibility of violation of embryogenesis when exposed to even small doses of toxic substances harmless for the mother (formaldehyde, manganese, chloroprene, pesticides).
general effect of poisons on the female body
former point of view of the greater sensitivity of women compared to men of all toxic substances is currently being revised.However, there is no doubt that in some cases women do appear to be more than men, susceptible to toxic effects - for example, to the poison that infects the liver and blood forming organs (such as lead, benzene and nitro compounds, phosphorus, chlorinated hydrocarbons).Most tender and the skin permeability of the women is the cause of their predominant exposure to diseases dermatoses (including allergic);It is important in those cases where penetration through the skin, toxic substances practically important for the appearance of intoxications, particularly toxic polyneuritis (organic solvents).
Finally, in a number of industries recorded a higher level of general morbidity with temporary disability among women than among men, which reflects the greater the severity of non-specific action of the toxic substances (production and use of mercury, petrochemical plants, synthetic rubber factories, the production of plastics,viscose and cotton production, electrical engineering).
Of the many physical factors, the effect of which is possible in a production environment, the most pronounced adverse effect on the female genitalia is ionizing radiation (especially internal exposure).
various violations of ovarian-menstrual function are found in working women under the influence of even relatively small doses of ionizing radiation (menstrual disorders, menorrhagia).
These changes can occur even before other symptoms of radiation sickness, t. E. Is the earliest sign of exposure to ionizing radiation.
degree of resistance depends on the dose and duration of exposure to the latter (irreversible sterility can occur under the influence of large doses).
adverse impact of ionizing radiation on the fetus (the emergence of differences malformations and decreased viability of the fetus) is due, on the one hand, its impact on a woman during pregnancy (especially dangerous radiation in the early her periods), on the other - a delay in the body of a pregnant woman radioactivesubstance that can pass through the placenta to the fetus (internal irradiation).
Nor can we forget the fact that ionizing radiation has a mutagenic effect (ie. E. About its ability to cause damage to the genetic structures).
In addition, women are generally more sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation (more susceptible to radiation sickness) than men working in the same conditions.
Vibration Vibration - as high frequency and low frequency - adversely affects the female reproductive organs.Experimental studies confirm the adverse effects of vibration on the ovaries and uterus (the development of degenerative changes in them).Increased frequency of prolapse of genital organs was observed in women exposed to low-frequency vibration jerky (truck drivers, conductors, rail cars, elektrosvarschitsy).
should also be noted a greater overall sensitivity of women to the effects of vibration, which can be explained, in all probability, the greater lability of the autonomic nervous system.
Overheating under production conditions leads to a part of the development of menstrual disorders (mainly type hypomenstrual syndrome), to more frequent of late toxicosis of pregnant women, and especially to violations of childbirth (weak labor, birth asphyxia), as well as to the high infant mortality ratein the first days of life.
Cooling contributes to inflammatory diseases of the genital organs.
Women exposed to electromagnetic fields of radio frequencies, especially microwave, observed violations of the menstrual cycle (menorrhagia, increased monthly), as well as frequent complications of childbirth (weak labor, hemorrhage, exacerbated by hypotension, typical of this impact).Microwave field adversely affects lactation.
experimental data has a large overall sensitivity of the females to the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as compared with males.
Increased severity of labor
Lifting and carrying heavy loads negatively affect the ovarian-menstrual function and fertility problems (increased incidence of complications of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion) and the level of gynecological morbidity, omissions contribute to the development of internal genitals and uterus retroflexion.
It should be noted that the same adverse influenced by the large total load per shift (10 tonnes and above) even at low value once lifted load.