Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
Antidote (antidote) - used in the treatment of drug poisoning, based mechanism of action is neutralization or poison prevention and elimination of toxic effects caused by them.
Action antidotes may be:
1) poison binding (by chemical and physico-chemical reactions);
2) in its displacement from the venom of the compounds to the substrate;
3) reimbursement of biologically active substances that were destroyed under the influence of poison;
4) in a functional antagonism, countering the toxic effect of the venom.
antidote therapy is widely used in complex therapeutic measures in occupational poisoning.Thus, to prevent suction of poison and its removal from the gastrointestinal tract are used antidote physicochemical steps such as activated carbon, adsorbing the surface pas some poisons (nicotine, thallium, etc.).Other antidotes have neutralizes the effect of poison entering into a chemical reaction, by neutralization, deposition, oxidation, reduction or binding poison.Thus, the method of neutralizatio
to precipitate some metals (in case of poisoning with mercury, mercuric chloride, arsenic) used protein water, egg white, milk, transform salt solutions to insoluble albuminates, or special antidote metals (Antidotum metallorum), which includes a stabilized hydrogen sulfide, forming a virtuallyinsoluble metal sulphides.
example antidote acting by oxidation can be potassium permanganate, active in case of poisoning with phenol.
principle of chemical bonding poison antidote underlies the action of glucose and sodium thiosulfate with cyanide poisoning (there is a transformation of hydrocyanic acid, respectively, in the cyanohydrin or thiocyanates).
When poisoning with heavy metals to bind already grown deep poison widely used complexing agents, such as unitiol, tetatsin calcium, pentatsin, tetoksatsii forming ions of many persistent toxic metals complex compounds that appear in the urine.
With the purpose of treatment and tetatsin pentatsin used in occupational lead poisoning.Kompleksonoterapiya (tetatsin, tetoksatsin) also promotes the excretion of certain radioactive elements and radioactive isotopes of heavy metals, such as yttrium, cerium.Introduction of complexones
recommended and for diagnostic purposes, such as when there is suspicion of lead intoxication, but the concentration of lead in blood and urine is not increased.A sharp increase in urinary excretion of lead after intravenous injection chelator indicates the presence of the poison in the body.
In principle chelation effect dithiols based antidote for poisoning by certain organic and inorganic compounds of heavy metals and other substances (nitrogen mustard and its analogs, iodoacetate, etc.), Belonging to the group of so-called thiol poisons.Of those studied, at the present time the most practical application of dithiols found unitiol and suktsimer.These means are effective antidotes arsenic, mercury, cadmium, nickel, antimony, chromium.As a result of the interaction of dithiols with heavy metal salts form strong water-soluble cyclic complexes, easily deduced by kidneys.
antidote for poisoning arsenical hydrogen is mekaptid.In recent years shown a high antidote effect of complexing a-penicillamine for poisoning by lead compounds, mercury, arsenic and some heavy metals.Tetatsinkaltsy composition include ointments, pastes, used to protect the skin of the workers, in contact with chromium, nickel, cobalt.
To decrease absorption from gastrointestinal tract of lead, manganese and other metals that enter the intestine ingests with dust, and result in removal of gall effectively use pectin.
For the prevention and treatment of carbon disulfide poisoning recommended glutamic acid reacts with the poison and enhances its excretion in the urine.As an antidote treatment is considered the use of funds, which inhibit the conversion of highly toxic venom metabolites.
example of an antidote, the effect of which is to displace the venom of his connection with the biological substrate, can be oxygen with carbon monoxide poisoning.By increasing the oxygen concentration in the blood is forced out of carbon monoxide.When poisoning with nitrites, nitrobenzene, aniline.resorting to the effects on biological processes involved in the restoration of methemoglobin in the hemoglobin.Accelerate the process demetgemoglobinizatsii methylene blue, cystamine, nicotinic acid, lipamid.Effective antidote for poisoning by organophosphorus pesticides is a group of tools that can reactivate blocked poison cholinesterase (eg, 2-PAM, toksogonin, dipiroksima bromide).
role antidotes may play some vitamins and minerals that come into contact with the catalytic center of the enzyme inhibited venom, and reducing their activity.
antidote can serve as a tool that does not displace the poison from his connection with the substrate, and by interacting with any other biological substrate makes the latter capable of binding poison screening other vital biological systems.So, when cyanide poisoning metgemoglobinobrazuyuschie applied substances.This methemoglobin by contacting the cyanogen forms cyanmethemoglobin and thereby prevents the inactivation of the venom tissue iron enzymes.
In principle, the use of functional antagonism based analeptikov - in case of poisoning drugs and, on the contrary, drugs with poisoning poisons that cause seizures.When poisoning toxins, causing inhibition of cholinesterase (organophosphates and many others.), Widely used holinoliticheskie drugs that are functional antagonists of acetylcholine, such as atropine, tropatsin, peptafen.