Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
mycoses - diseases caused by mold or yeast-like fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, Candida, etc.).Acute professional athlete's lung develops in the massive entry of fungi and their spores in the respiratory tract.
Professional pnevmomikozy meet workers confectionery industries, canneries, in individuals involved obtaining yeast feed, processing of agricultural raw materials, production of antibiotics, etc.
known lung disease in pepper sorters working with the old, covered with abundant mold red pepper.;the employees of tea plantations and factories;group of lung disease in workers breweries when malting barley, mostly in drying it into the barn;threshers in oats and other cereals ( "Grain fever", "light farmer", "threshers oats disease").
some importance attached to molds in lung diseases from plant fiber dust - flax, hemp ( "carder fever", "cough weavers").
These examples are not limited to production, which fungal lung disease are observed.In all cases, sluggishly flowing pulmonary process i
Pnevmomikozy can be combined with extrapulmonary mycosis (skin lesions, mucous membranes of the eyes and mouth, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, and other organ systems).
Acute respiratory fungal infections often occur at the beginning with influenza-like symptoms (fever, chills, headache, weakness, dull pain in the bones).Maybe allergic component - chest tightness, paroxysms of dry cough, difficulty exhaling.
In the future there are the following forms of acute pnevmomikozov: laryngotracheobronchitis, bronhobronhiolit pneumonia.You can expand bronchial obstruction, bronchial asthma.pneumonia during different: heavy, moderate, blurred.
Chronic pnevmomikozy develop in individuals of the same profession.According to clinical and radiological picture of distinction: like pneumonia, tuberculosis-like and similar forms of cancer.The first process is a low-intensity, chronic, mainly in the lower parts of the lungs, with marked interstitial component, without the effect of antibiotic treatment.In this form of tubercular disease is prolonged, or asymptomatic malosimptomno.X-ray can be identified and disseminated focal changes, "infiltration", sometimes - a kind of cavity partially or completely filled with overgrown fungal mycelium.Progression of the process leads to fungal "sepsis" and the generalization lesions.In this form of cancer pattern can be observed, not distinguishable from that in the central cancer.A more rapid increase in symptoms and the group nature of the disease, along with the presence of mycelium in the sputum, eliminates the diagnosis of cancer.
Frequent views of chronic occupational lung mycosis agricultural workers is actinomycosis.The disease is caused by the inhalation of spores of pathogenic species of radiant fungus or aspiration of tiny plant particles - awns ears of corn, straw mushrooms located in them.
Primary actinomycosis of the lungs characterized by a long passage.Actinomycosis is not limited to the lungs and passes to nearby tissues - the pleura, chest wall, abdominal cavity;the breakout occurs in the blood vessel metastasis to distant organs.The destructive process leading to the formation of cavities, fistulas and hemoptysis, usually is the cause of its confusion with tuberculosis.As a rule, formed massive pleural thickening of the horny.Unlike other pnevmomikozov actinomycosis it affects mainly the right lung, and often lower lobes.Sputum is sometimes defined radiant fungus (and other fungi in mixed infections).Characterized by prolonged fever, severe "fire" chest pain, exhaustion, night sweats.
correct early diagnosis of occupational lung mycosis is possible only taking into account a number of points:
1) professional history - a thorough acquaintance with the working conditions (unusual conditions that preceded the development of the disease);
2) of the group nature of the disease;
3) clinical and radiological findings, atypical and originality of the flow;
4) presence in the sputum (microscopically, seeding) of the same mushroom, and in that the grain or other fungi infected substrate in the production of dust;
5) the results of serological tests (agglutination, complement fixation, etc.).;
6) the results of skin tests with relevant antigens.
Early hospitalization of patients and careful approach to vocational rehabilitation assessment, given the possible exacerbation.With mild cases at the end of treatment - a temporary transfer to another job for up to two months.When expressed, and severe forms of the disease or at relapse of the disease, further work with the grain (or other contaminated substrate) is contraindicated.Depending on the severity of the process of disability can be temporary or permanent (especially in actinomycosis).
Dust control, the use of disinfectants in wet cleaning, destruction of heavily contaminated by fungi materials, personal hygiene, use of respirators.