Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
Causes of hypertension
incidence of hypertensive disease in the population depends on many factors. Living conditions, nutrition, heredity, bad habits and other unfavorable factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension.Same reaction of the cardiovascular system may be caused by a variety of harmful effects (lead, mercury, carbon disulfide, microwave, vibration, noise, increased the severity and intensity of labor, and others.).
special place in the development of hypertensive reactions is given to the degree of labor intensity - a significant neuro-emotional stress.The incidence of hypertension in persons of mental work all researchers associated with the great psycho-emotional load, as well as the lack of physical activity.It was noted, for example, in the engineering industry including engineering and technical personnel and employees hypertension occurs 2-3 times more frequently than among the workers;significant incidence of hypertensive disease in telegr
The workers engaged in manual labor, hypertension is less common than those of non-manual workers.However, we must take into account the effect of physical fitness: the preliminary examination, the doctor did not admit to the hard physical work of persons suffering from hypertension, and working with a lot of professional experience, in which it is detected, try to employ - translate pas lighter work.
In hypertensive patients, engaged in heavy work, marked by a large incidence and longer duration of disability in this disease.If they try to stay on the physically hard work, the disease progresses rapidly, and they are forced to change their profession anyway.
accumulated a lot of evidence to suggest the noise impact on vascular tone.Even a short stay in terms of noise exposure in healthy people leads to increased blood pressure, and the duration of its action often leads to the development of hypertension.The nature of the vascular reactions often violated even before the development of occupational hearing loss.In individuals with diagnosed hypertension vibration disease becomes severe course with a predominance of cerebral forms.
Chronic radiation sickness
chronic radiation sickness, including its initial form, is usually accompanied by hypotension.It is also known that hypertension arose earlier in chronic radiation sickness becomes particularly severe course.
survey of large groups of people working with SHF and UHF, showed that these factors contribute to the development of hypertension, and the disease itself has some features of the course - the asymmetry of blood pressure, frequent occurrence of severe hypertensive crises, which are not characteristic of the early forms of the disease.
of essential hypertension also contributes to the impact of a number of toxic substances.The most studied effect of lead on vascular tone.It may have a different focus.For example, young workers with little professional experience are often observed hypotonic reaction, and with a large experience of hypertensive reactions occur and may develop hypertension.It runs especially hard when combined with intoxication.The action of the lead as a result of violations of the neuro-vascular regulation a reduction in permeability of precapillary bed, increasing the elasticity of blood vessels and blood viscosity, less changes occur in the myocardium.
For a long time it was believed that organic lead compounds induce hypotension.Subsequent observations have shown that the classic "triad" (hypotension, bradycardia and hypothermia) occurs only in 1/3 cases of poisoning and that the hypertensive syndrome can develop in this intoxication.
Individuals working with metallic mercury, hypertension is diagnosed more frequently than in the control groups.With increasing seniority within the same age group the number of hypertensive individuals is growing.It is known that mercury causes an increase in the excitability of sympathetic centers that is reflected in the change in blood pressure.Please note that mercury is a thiol poison, so it is possible and immediate effect of mercury on the vascular wall.
The effect of manganese on the cardiovascular system is insufficiently studied.It was found that welders chronic manganese intoxication early stages, often observed increase in the maximum, minimum and average hemodynamic pressure particularly.Such an increase in vascular tone may lead to the development of hypertension.
Upon contact with carbon monoxide develop quite early functional changes in the hemodynamic system.Exposure to even small doses of carbon monoxide causes the symptom of hypertension: high blood pressure, pulse pressure, tachycardia, accent II tone of the aorta, observed cerebrovascular or cardiac crises, pain.Carbon monoxide can degrade significantly during cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension.
Carbon disulphide Carbon disulphide
affects not only the nervous system, but can affect other organs and systems in the first place - cardiovascular.There are indications of increased vascular tone and arterial hypertension in workers exposed to carbon disulfide, and the frequency of cases of hypertension increases with professional experience.A number of patients are found vascular changes fundus.There is evidence of a greater frequency of hypertensive disease among the population living near the viscose production, where carbon disulfide contained in industrial emissions.High blood pressure is associated with arising under the influence of the action of venom violation of hypothalamic function.Similar results were obtained in respect of inorganic fluorine compounds.
About benzene and its homologs is well known that they also affect blood pressure.All researchers admit their hypotensive effect.However, hypertension in workers of these plants is more severe than in those who do not have contact with benzene.
pathogenesis mechanism of action of factors on the development and course of essential hypertension is different.The principal should be considered a violation of the higher nervous activity - disorders of cortical-subcortical regulation (psycho-emotional voltage, noise, vibration, etc.).In addition, it matters a direct manifestation of the toxic effect, in particular hypoxia (carbon monoxide).You can prevent the poison on the mechanisms that play a complementary role in the development of hypertensive disease (eg, humoral).On the basis of all the data we can talk about the role of contributing to a number of unfavorable factors in the development of hypertension.
more complex represented cases where hypertensive syndrome may be the clinical manifestation of an occupational disease or poisoning.A number of diseases occurs with neurocirculatory impairments which in occupational pathology clinic designated by the term "angiodistonichesky syndrome".More often than not it manifests hypertensive reactions and fits the clinical picture of occupational disease.
outcome of these vascular disorders may be different.In some cases, as the elimination of phenomena of occupational diseases and smoothed angiodistonichesky syndrome, which distinguishes it from hypertension, for which is usually characterized by more or less pronounced persistent progressive course.At the same time, many patients angiodistonichesky syndrome gradually develops into hypertension.
Thus, hypertension in some cases may be deemed the outcome or complication of an occupational disease.
To connect with hypertensive disease occupational disease the following conditions are necessary:
1. relatively young patients (40-45 years).
2. typical and severity of other symptoms of occupational disease (neurocirculatory disorders, cerebral crises, encephalopathy, polyneuritis, the presence of toxic substances or products of their transformation in biological media, and others.).
3. The development of hypertensive disease on the background of existing occupational disease or its sequelae.
4. The absence of other etiological moments that could be the cause of hypertension.
Persons suffering from hypertension, is contraindicated work in industries where there is contact with adverse production factors, may have a negative impact on the cardiovascular system.