Bleeding and ways to stop
Cardiovascular Diseases / / August 12, 2017
angioplasty and heart
(Methods of bleeding)
Bleeding is a severe complication of trauma, injuries and operations.Therefore, knowledge of types of bleeding and how to stop them as in accidental injury or during surgery is the foundation of the entire cardiovascular surgery.
There are five types of bleeding:
1) blood - jetting, or pulsatile expiration raging red blood from the wound;
2) venous - smooth, not pulsating allocation of dark blood;
3) capillary - diffuse, smooth release of red blood across the surface of the wound;
4) parenchymal - (characteristic of liver injury, spleen, lung), in which the blood is released in different colors (scarlet and dark red) across the surface of the wound;
5) mixed bleeding - a combination of venous with the arterial, capillary and venous etc.
Temporary stop bleeding is most often performed outside the facility at random injuries and is in the nature of first aid to the victim, which is a prerequisite..to transport it to the place w
Ways to temporarily stop the bleeding.
1. Direct pressing bleeding place (compressive bandage) can be used in non-intensive bleeding (venous, capillary, mixed), mostly in the upper and lower extremities.Carry it in the following way: on the wound surface impose a sterile towel or a piece of fresh, clean laundry, do roll of wool or clothing and all that tight pribintovyvayut or pressed by hand.
2. Raised position limbs stops the bleeding of small superficial wounds when hands or feet, fingers, bleeding from varicose veins in the lower leg.This method is good to combine with a pressure bandage.
3. .Press the main arterial trunks finger used when needed immediately stop arterial bleeding.Pressing produces, in certain anatomical areas where arterial trunks are located more or less close to the surface and are adjacent to the bones.These areas are typical and are not only used to control bleeding, but also to palpation in the diagnosis of various vascular diseases.
common carotid artery pressed against the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae in the middle of the inner edge of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.At the position of the patient lying on his stomach (providing assistance is from the back of the victim) turned his head to the opposite side of the injury.The thumb is positioned on the back of the neck, and the other fingers pressed against the carotid artery.
subclavian artery pressed in the supraclavicular fossa to the I edge to the point where it passes over it between the scalene muscles.At the position of the victim lying on his back (providing assistance to the affected person is a) withdrawn its head in the opposite direction from the place of pressing, four fingers cover the back of the neck and his thumb pressed against the artery.
axillary artery pressed deep in the armpit to the head of the humerus at the boundary between the front and rear two-thirds of the axilla at the rear surface of the pectoralis major muscle.
brachial artery can be palpated at the edge of the biceps and pressed his fingers brush covering the outside of the shoulder.
femoral artery pressed against the horizontal branch of the pubic bone immediately under occlusive disease in the middle of the distance between the anterior iliac spine and symphysis pubis.Pressing produce two thumbs girth hip or clenched fingers of his right hand, increasing their left hand action.In case of failure of these measures, especially in obese people, you can use the following method: providing assistance presses artery typically place the knee of his legs.
abdominal aortic right fist pressed to the spine in the epigastric region, increasing the pressure seizure right wrist left hand.
4. The circular pulling limbs (harness). tourniquet main rules are: tourniquet is applied only if arterial bleeding;the imposition must be made above the bleeding place only on the shoulder or on the thigh with an obligatory seal tissue.In the absence of elastic tubes or strips (tow), you can use a rope, a strip of cloth or bandage, twisted 4-5 layers in the form of twist, lever that after tightening is required to fix a separate dressing.Tourniquet impose a term of not more than 2 hours, and in winter to 1 hour. Time of imposing of a plait or twist-free mark on the skin of the limbs, on the dressing, or paper attached to the sling.
When a patient with a tourniquet in operating after the treatment of the surgical field is removed the harness imposed on the stages of evacuation, re-impose a sterile tourniquet and re-treated with the surgical field.A sterile tourniquet is sometimes applied in the operating room and before the amputation in order to reduce blood loss during surgery.In this case, after the treatment of the stump harness is removed, producing an additional hemostasis before suturing the skin.
5. Forced flexion of limbs: to stop bleeding produce increased flexion in the joints, wounds above - elbow, knee, hip, joint locking strongly bent in this position bandages.
When bleeding from the shoulder or the axillary artery both elbows with forearms bent to reduce the patient's back and held in this position with a few turns of the bandage extending horizontally above the condyles;these turnovers is pulled down by two lengths of bandage, which is run from the elbow to the perineum, is performed under her and lifted again via the inguinal region to the elbows, where attached to the horizontal strokes of the bandage.