Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
Arsenic and its compounds - arsenic and arsenic anhydride, gidroarsenit and sodium gidroarsenat, arsenate, calcium, shveynfurtskoy, or Paris, greens - metaarsenit acetate of copper, arsenic sulfide - are used in a variety of industries: glass, colorful, pharmaceutical andas pesticides.
Toxic effect of arsenic compounds is similar, with the exception of arsenic hydrogen.MAC for arsenic and arsenic anhydride - 0.3 mg / m3.
Arsenic enters the body through the respiratory tract, digestive tract and skin.Provided through the body by the kidneys, intestines, and mammary glands sebaceous.Lingering in the body, arsenic and its compounds accumulate in the bones, liver, kidneys, skin, hair and nails.In the pathogenesis of toxic arsenic primary importance are vascular (capillary paralysis) and neurotrophic disorders.Provides local irritant effect;carcinogenic.
most common gastro-intestinal form.After 0.5-2 hours after taking poison - metallic taste in the mouth, vomiting with severe pain in th
early diagnosis is important arsenic detection in urine (24-48 h) and in sections of hair (after 30 hours).After 1-2 weeks may cause polyneuritis symptoms with significant pain, progressive muscle atrophy, their tendency to contractures, trophic disorders of the skin.
When large doses of poison develops paralytic form, expressed general weakness, convulsions, loss of consciousness, coma, paralysis of the respiratory and cardiovascular centers.Death can occur in the early hours.
Inhalation of dust arsenic compounds in an early stage there are conjunctival irritation and upper respiratory tract, coughing up blood, join gastrointestinal disorder, then there are syndromes lesions of the central and peripheral nervous system.There may be a rise in temperature to 39-40 ° C. Recovery of long-term (up to 5 months).
most commonly observed chronic rhinitis, laryngitis, erosion and perforation of the nasal septum, as well as skin lesions (dermatitis, warts, melasma).Already in the early stages may cause changes in the nervous system (asthenic condition, mild forms of polyneuritis, especially sensitive), as well as violation trophism - hyperkeratosis on the palms and soles, hair loss.Observed dyspepsia, diarrhea, gingivitis, stomatitis.Characterized by white lateral stripes on the nails ( "Meeus band").In more severe cases of intoxication - chronic hepatitis, gastritis, myocardial dystrophy, as well as more severe forms of polyneuritis.
possible kidney damage, mild anemia.Described pernicious anemia, cirrhosis of the liver (with predisposing influence of alcohol), occlusive disease.
Arsenic and its compounds cause skin cancer (squamous or warty) often on the chin, chest, arms, scrotum, buttocks.The latent period - 10-20 years.The current slow.Chronic skin diseases, especially hyperkeratosis, warts are treated as precancerous conditions.Possible cancer bronchi, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and liver.
on arsenic anhydride production marked a relatively high incidence of peripheral nervous system diseases, chronic bronchitis, gastro-intestinal, skin diseases.
First aid and treatment
In acute poisoning through the mouth - stomach lavage with warm water, 2% suspension of magnesium oxide (magnesia).Emetic, then Antidotum arsenici teaspoon every 10-12 minutes.
should immediately begin treatment dithiol antidotes: inside lipoic acid or lipamid, intramuscularly unitiol (5 ml of 5% solution - the first day 3-4 times at intervals of 6-8 hours, during the second day - 2-3 times, then1-2 times a day for 6-14 days).Intravenous glucose to ascorbic acid and thiamine, cardiovascular drugs.Oxygen therapy.
Inhalation poisoning - Local anti-inflammatory treatment, dithiol antidotes and instillation of 5% solution unitiola eyes in inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea.
Treatment of chronic intoxications
unitiola Intramuscular injection of 5 ml of 5% solution every day or every other day (12-15 injections), vitamin (vitamin E, C, B1, B6).When polinevriticheskom syndrome - vitamins B1, B12.When asthenic syndrome with autonomic-trophic disorders intravenous infusion of glucose with ascorbic acid should be alternated with injections of a 10% solution of calcium gluconate 10 ml intramuscular (only 10-12 times).Physiotherapy: electrophoresis sulfur, four baths.
When skin lesions administered intravenous sodium thiosulfate, ascorbic acid, as well as local anti-inflammatory treatment;when keratosis - 3-5% salicylic ointment, resorcinol and sulfur ointment.
disability In milder forms of chronic poisoning - transfer to another job (for 2 months.).When expressed forms - permanent employment.It may be a question of the transfer of disability.
Personal protection when working with dust - dust masks, safety goggles, a dust protective clothing, rubber gloves or a thick cloth.Personal hygiene measures.After work - a warm shower without soap, followed by treatment of lesions with alcohol.Preliminary and periodic medical examinations.