Methyl alcohol poisoning
Occupational Diseases / / May 18, 2016
methyl alcohol (methanol) - a colorless liquid.It is used to denature ethyl alcohol;in the chemical industry -. for formaldehyde, methylation, etc. In addition, it is found in solvent, varnish.
enters the body through the respiratory system, skin and gastrointestinal tract - when administered as an alcoholic beverage.MPC - 5 mg / m3.The main effect has on the nervous and cardiovascular system.Expressed cumulative effect.Typical lesions of the optic nerve and retina.Toxicity generally associated with the formation of the body of formaldehyde and formic acid.
After a few hours, and sometimes after 1-2 days (during which there may be blurred dyspepsia), there is a headache, heaviness in the head and chest, shortness of breath, malaise and amblyopia (sometimes upblindness);pupils dilated and motionless, face hyperemic, overstuffed, shortness of breath, tachycardia.Then, shortness of breath, chest tightness, there is fear of death, convulsions, cyanosis;sometimes coma, often on the consciousness
In milder forms of intoxication case may restrict dyspeptic symptoms and complaints of headaches, unsteadiness when walking, decreased vision.Objectively, there is a slight nystagmus when looking to the side, lowering the stability, mydriasis, conjunctival irritation phenomenon and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract.There may be light, and the phenomenon of polyneuritis.
In some cases, developing optic nerve damage including blindness in the absence or weak expression of the common symptoms of intoxication.Ophthalmoscopy retinal edema is observed and the optic nerve or optic neuritis picture.As a consequence of intoxication is often blindness or significant reduction of vision due to degeneration of the optic nerves.
under production conditions by inhalation of methanol vapors describes fainting, headaches, feeling of intoxication, irritation of eyes and respiratory tract.
Expressed in irritation of mucous, general weakness, fatigue, tearfulness, headaches, tremors, dyspeptic symptoms, abnormal liver functions.Possible thrombocytopenia.It is characteristic of the affected organ: the weakening of the reaction of pupils to light, concentric narrowing of the color of the borders, pale nipples optic nerve, their swelling, narrowing of the arteries and veins of the retina expansion.First aid
Required abundant immediate (8-12 liters, although pure water washings) gastric lavage (even after 1-2 days. After intake) 2% sodium hydrogencarbonate solution and warm water.Emetic (1 ml of 0.5% solution of apomorphine subcutaneously).Siphon enema.Bleed (250-350 ml) followed by 50-100 ml 40% glucose solution with ascorbic acid (500 mg).If necessary, repeat bleeding in a smaller amount (if there is no drop in blood pressure) or perform hemodialysis.The fight against acidosis - sodium bicarbonate into 4 g intravenously every hour and 200-250 ml of 5% solution (until slightly alkaline urine).Methylene blue - 10 ml intravenously.Isotonic sodium chloride solution subcutaneously (500-1000 ml).Solid vitamin - ascorbic acid (300-500 mg intravenously), vitamin B1 (30 mg intravenously), riboflavin (10 mg).Vitamin B6 - 1 ml of 2.5-5% solution intramuscularly.Larger doses of folic acid.Heart, strychnine.Drip enema of 5% glucose solution (500-1000 ml).Insulin (subcutaneously 5-10 units).In all cases, it is recommended lumbar puncture with removing 12-15 ml of cerebrospinal fluid and vnutrilyumbalnym administration of vitamin B1 (1-2 ml of 5% solution).By lowering of a lumbar puncture should be repeated 3-4 times in 3-4 days.Also recommended intravenous infusion novocaine (0.5 ml of 10% solution) daily for the first 10 days after exposure.Oxygen therapy is carried out in the early hours alternate with carbogen (15 min - carbogen, 45 min - oxygen).Make sure the body warm (hot water bottles, mustard plasters to the feet).When facial flushing - a high position of the head, the cold head.
main antidote is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which prevents the oxidation of methanol in the body, thereby reducing the circulation of highly toxic metabolites of methanol.It is recommended to introduce methanol poisoning after intravenously 1 L of 5% ethanol solution of 5% glucose solution in water or isotonic sodium chloride solution.Then, every hour, and then every 4 hours for 3 days allowed to drink a small amount (40-60 ml) of 10-20% alcohol or injected intravenously with 200 ml of a 5% solution of 5% glucose solution.
After acute poisoning ability to work for the most part remains limited due to the lowering of view.Chronic poisoning production proceed normally without disability.In order to prevent progression of the disease requires a temporary transfer to another job for 1-2 months.
health education - to familiarize workers with the risk of ingestion of methanol.Replacement of methanol, where appropriate, other less toxic alcohols (ethyl, hydrolysis).