Poisoning of oil and petroleum products
Occupational Diseases / / May 17, 2016
Oil, basic information
oil - a fossil fuel.In its raw form - viscous oily liquid of dark brown color.The chemical composition is a complex mixture of organic compounds.The bulk of oil are hydrocarbons 3 classes: methane, naphthenic and aromatic.oil type is determined by the predominance of hydrocarbons of a particular class.Furthermore hydrocarbons in the oil include oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen organic compound and a large number of minerals (potassium, nickel, copper, phosphorus, vanadium, etc.).
importance is attached to the sulfur, which is mainly in the form of organic compounds, partly in the form of hydrogen sulphide in the free state.Depending on the sulfur content of oil is divided into sweet (Baku - with a sulfur content 0,03-0,4%) and mnogosernistuyu (Central Asian - with a sulfur content of 5.1%).
oil industry include exploration, drilling, production, transportation, processing, storage and distribution of oil and oil products.
1) in its distillation to separate the PA facti
2) in thermal or catalytic cleavage of higher hydrocarbons with the formation of compounds with lower relative molecular weight (cracking).
distillation by getting gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, diesel and fuel oil.In the vacuum distillation of the last get oily fraction of oil, and the remainder - tar.By cracking of high-boiling oil fractions obtained most valuable lower boiling fraction mainly gasoline.
final products of oil and gas processing are different fuels for gasoline, diesel and jet fuel, a wide range of lubricating oils and greases, waxes, asphalts, petroleum coke and others.
from oil produce medicines, raw materials for the perfume industry, rubber, plastics, fats, acids and so on. in the processing of oil in the air can enter the pair of initial, intermediate and final products.
Effects on the body
Workers Petroleum and petrochemical industry in contact with both the crude oil and the products of its processing, as well as the reagents: acids, alkalis, solvents, catalysts.
Air environment of industrial enterprises processing sulfurous oil contains a variety of hydrocarbons, the most dangerous of which are benzene, hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfur compounds, sulfur and sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide.The combined effect on the body of the working set of different hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide enhances the toxic effect.
Impact of oil on the body is possible through inhalation of fumes and through the skin.Oil and products derived from it can cause acute and chronic poisoning, and skin lesions.Acute poisoning can be caused by sulfur compounds like oil, and high concentrations of hydrocarbons.Prolonged exposure mnogosernistoy oil can cause chronic poisoning.
Complaints of headache, dizziness, general weakness, fatigue, forgetfulness, and some confusion, sleep disturbances (disturbed sleep), pain in the heart and epigastric.
are leading changes in the nervous system.Depending on the severity of intoxication, they appear as neurotic, asthenovegetative or asthenic syndrome, and in the most severe cases - encephalopathy.These changes may be accompanied by polinevriticheskimi disorders mainly affecting the sensory fibers.Frequent vegetovascular disorders, blood pressure instability with a tendency to hypotension.
myocardiodystrophy.On an electrocardiogram - sinus bradycardia, decreased P-wave, a change in repolarization phase, expressed flattening, biphasic T wave slowdown intraatrial conductivity and partial atrioventricular block.
observed dysfunction of the vestibular and olfactory analyzers, visual field loss.Changes
gastrointestinal occur reducing the amount of gastric juice and acidity in violation of its upward, while more severe intoxication - reduction of enzymatic activity violation main digestive glands, reducing the activity of trypsin, the development of chronic gastritis.
frequent violations of pigment, carbohydrate, protein and antitoxic functions of the liver.For liver toxicity characteristic clinical symptoms of small liver failure.
observed lesions of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat with a predominance of atrophic forms of chronic conjunctivitis with reduced corneal and conjunctival reflexes, mild chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Endocrine disorders - a moderate increase in thyroid function, decrease in adaptive properties pituitary - adrenal cortex, menstrual dysfunction, reduction of fertility, the increase in the number of spontaneous abortions.Frequent failure of children from mother's milk.
Peripheral blood: hypochromic anemia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and mono-, sometimes leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Chronic, exposure to low-sulfur oil was an increase in the incidence of the respiratory system;functional changes in the central nervous system, mainly in the form astenovegetativnogo syndrome, emotional lability sphere.Bradycardia, hypotension, hypothermia.Chronic gastritis with reduced acid-forming function of the stomach;liver function abnormalities.
In direct contact with fresh oil there are a variety of skin changes in the form of its dryness, pigmentation, hyperkeratosis, pigmented flat warts, folliculitis.
The workers employed in the processing of sour crude, may develop contact and allergic dermatitis, sometimes for acquiring similar to turning eczema.
Food processing sour crude oil have mild sensitizing properties.When occupational dermatitis often affects the hands and the lower third of the forearm, rarely face.
Perhaps the development of tumors: warts, skin cancer.There are indications of an association of internal organs tumors with prolonged exposure to oil and oil products.
Treatment Treatment of chronic poisoning - syndromic, restorative.
In milder forms of chronic intoxication products mnogosernistoy oil working capacity is restored.When expressed forms, in spite of the rational employment (without contact with toxic substances), but there comes a full recovery.Improper employment opportunities progression of the process.
disability If the initial signs of chronic intoxication - the provision of medical certificates and appropriate treatment.In the case of persistence and severity of the changes requires constant translation to work without contact with toxic substances.
The prevention of occupational poisonings oil radical means are integrated automation, remote control and mechanization of production processes.
When working with high concentrations (in tanks, tanks, etc.) Are used hose masks, self-priming or with forced air.To prevent skin lesions - relief ointment.Overalls.Women who are breast-feeding of children, it is recommended to transfer to another job.Required preliminary and periodic medical examinations.