Cardiovascular Diseases / / April 29, 2016
Traditional medicine does not classify the disease in order of size.The disease has an anomaly.Whichever body has not been struck, the damage is applied throughout the body.And organ damage is so irreversible that the life-saving amputation, surgeons go to that body.And yet there is a body that can not be amputated.This is the heart.No wonder it is called the "engine".Stop the motor - the failure of the whole mechanism or unit.If we are talking about a person, heart failure means death.
Today found life-saving exit when hopelessly diseased heart, transplant donor heart.But it is not only a complex and time, and operation technologies, it affects also the moral and ethical side, religious beliefs and most importantly - the legislation that not all countries give permission for such an operation.That's why any heart disease requires immediate treatment.And we must work hard the doctor and the patient that the treatment was a success.
What are their in the heart?What is the reason
That this is so in reality, we can see, when it comes to coronary heart disease prevalent today in all countries and continents.Its sad popularity is marked by the fact that coronary heart disease, there are other names are synonyms: angina pectoris, coronary heart disease and angina pectoris.In the last - briefly and accurately convey the essence of coronary heart disease.
What does "ischemia"?
Ischemia - the defeat of an organ or body part, which due to circulatory disorders comes oxygen starvation.In Greek ischemia - "Blood delay."Coronary disease can be upper and lower limbs, intestines, cells of the cerebral cortex infarction.If it prevents the normal flow of blood thrombosis, occlusion, compression or thickening of the vessel walls, so it's ischemia.
now quite clear how dangerous such a delay for the circulation of the heart muscle (in this case is a question of coronary heart disease).The heart muscle is most sensitive to a lack of blood that flows into it.So, the heart, which in its structure insulated inner shell and the employed constant pumping of blood in ischemia loses in full, and sometimes does not receive nutrients and oxygen from this very blood.At stake is the myocardium, the heart organ.It is supplied with blood by means of his own blood to ensure system - coronary arteries.Enough damage or blockage of the arteries to coronary heart disease occurred.When coronary arteries narrow, myocardial tissue blood shortage occurs and it borne nutrients and oxygen.If not enough magnesium and potassium, i.e.disturbed electrolyte composition of the blood, heart muscle relaxes poorly, spasms occur.A cramping difficult, in turn, receive the necessary nutrients and oxygen, from entering blood.When a shortage of potassium in the cell there is an excess of water and sodium therein.The cell swells.This edematous state it can not properly function.There is a failure in heart rhythm.And here comes a heart failure.
Often, in the context of coronary artery disease have used the term "plaque in the arteries of the heart."This fat deposits that narrow the arteries, blocking them, actively preventing the flow of blood, and with it the flow of oxygen to the heart muscle.Often plaques, their lipids (fatty acids), growing, literally tearing the fibrous tissue.A gap is formed in place a new layer of endothelial cells - endothelial cells.They increase the plaque.Hence, it narrowed coronary vessel.And this is coronary heart disease, progressive atherosclerosis.
Thrice is wrong those who believe that, not being a doctor, do not need to know basic things about your body.Firstly, knowledge is said to not be behind.Second, it informed forearmed.In this case - equipped to resist disease.Especially when it comes to heart.And although, in the case of heart disease and not just the most reasonable - to see a specialist, understand and imagine what's going on, it does not interfere, but help.That's why it makes sense to dwell on coronary heart disease, to its forms.
types of coronary heart disease
First you need to understand that coronary heart disease has different clinical manifestations.And flows in both acute and chronic forms.Here are the most common options: there may come a sudden cardiac arrest;myocardial infarction - acute, possible or already transferred;angina;heart failure, when the heart muscle decreases its ability to pump function;arrhythmia.
Angina. Statistics says that the most common form of coronary heart disease - angina.It can be stable or unstable.But this is not the whole gradation of angina is strained when grown significantly psychophysical load.Sometimes rest angina (by the way, it is very do not like doctors) - a disease attack in his sleep.There is a "silent" angina, too dangerous option - the person does not feel pain, it simply numbs the one hand, there comes a shortness of breath.
much more clearly manifested form unstable angina: a sudden attack from the increase in the pain.It - preinfarction state.How dangerous is it, everyone knows today.
Causes of ischemic heart disease, angina, coronary heart disease
- Cholesterol. atherosclerosis process begins with increasing cholesterol and lipoprotein levels, which are involved in cholesterol transport.Cholesterol is found in all human cells and products of animal origin.He is involved in many functions in our body, but cholesterol may cause appreciable harm under certain conditions.
- lipoproteins. Lipoproteins, cholesterol is transported and determine its size.The most widely known of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL).LDL is often referred to as the "bad" cholesterol, HDL, in turn, is called "good" cholesterol.
- Oxidation. destructive process called oxidation, is an important trigger mechanism for the development of atherosclerosis.Chemical oxidation processes in the body due to the release of unstable particles known as free radicals of oxygen.This is a normal process in the body, but under certain conditions, such as exposure to cigarette smoke or ambient stress environment, these free radicals are produced in abundance.In excessive amount, they can be very dangerous, causing inflammation and damage to the genetic material in cells.Heart disease develops when free radicals penetrate the artery and oxidized low density lipoproteins.Oxidized LDL is the basis for the accumulation of cholesterol in arterial walls, resulting in damaged and narrowed arteries, leading to heart disease.
- Inflammatory reactions. On thickening of arteries affected and persistent inflammatory responses in the body.Scientists believe that this reaction - immune process, known as the body's inflammatory response.There is growing evidence that the inflammatory response may be present not only in the field of cholesterol deposits in the arteries, but also in all the arteries leading to the heart.
- blocking of the arteries. As a result, the arteries are narrowed calcination, develop a condition known as stenosis.As the narrowing and hardening of the arteries, blood flow slows down, reducing the level of oxygen-rich blood being delivered to the heart muscle.Such oxygen deprivation of vital cells is ischemia.If ischemia affecting the coronary artery to cause damage to the heart tissue.Narrow and non-elastic arteries not only slow down the flow of blood, but also vulnerable to injuries and blood clots that usually causes a heart attack.
risk factors of CHD, angina, coronary heart disease
About what are the risk factors for coronary heart disease in any of its form, also know.But this is exactly the case when a man get along parallel knowledge and ignoring them.
- Overweight and obesity. not need to decipher the harm of excess weight, obesity, exceeding all reasonable options.And people who suffer from overweight, does not become smaller.There are already a whole states that in their government programs put struggle with excess weight in the category of social risks.So, anyway, did the United States, where the voting age obese people descended almost to the nursery.Excess body fat, especially in the waist area, may increase the risk of developing heart disease.Obesity increases the risk of high blood pressure and diabetes, which are associated with heart disease.
- Smoking. Smoking is one of the first instigators of coronary heart disease.The fight against this harmful habit is not national borders.In Europe and America is a clotting issue of tobacco, and nicotine products prices are rising exponentially, bans on smoking in public places and facilities, designed fines for the sale of cigarettes to minors system.The last three decades, cardiologists do not get tired to say that the passive smoker is exposed to the same dangers as the one who does not let the cigarette from his mouth.It seems that the ice was broken.Anyway, I want to believe it.But perhaps the propaganda antikureniya must again and again to gain momentum.And serve the complex: for ecologically unfavorable planets and nicotine - a threat.For a single person who has had a heart attack, again smoked cigarette can be fatal.
But these are absolutely clear two risk factors, each person should feel himself.And I agree that not to smoke or eat through the measure - not the most difficult, is not the worst thing in life.Imagine that this happened.It is difficult to say how many people will not affect coronary heart disease, how many lives will be saved.
- soputsvuyuschie disease. There are other factors that affect heart disease.They often depend on addictions.Same diabetes or hypertension, cholelithiasis.
- Peripheral Arterial Disease. Peripheral artery disease develops when atherosclerosis affects the limbs, especially the legs.Even if the symptoms of heart disease often do not occur in the majority of patients with diseases of the peripheral arteries, most of these patients have coronary heart disease.
- Vitamin deficiency. Lack of vitamins A, E, C, and minerals - potassium and magnesium plays an important role in the development of CHD.Lack of folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 were associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in some studies.The disadvantage of these vitamins enhances homocysteine - amino acids, which is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke and heart failure.
- Lack of physical activity. in the same row and the risks which, as smoking and overweight person can avoid: a sedentary lifestyle where physical exercise, elementary charge or pool forgotten for the sake of the computer and the TV.It was then that a man can radically change the situation?At stake is the health of fact.
Did someone convince a formal declaration of the state of health of the US Department: leading cause of death in the country - it is cardiovascular disease.They left far behind the rest, including cancer and disease.And the United States is not alone here: Russian doctors also take out first place in heart disease mortality.
- Age. And the Americans, and our doctors are unanimous in the view that the increase in coronary heart disease depends on the person's age - three-quarters of deaths from these diseases over 65 years.But there is still one quarter.That people are not elderly.Heart disease tends to rejuvenation.And this is a threat to national security and the gene pool.
- Paul. often draw parallels between men and women, subject to coronary heart disease.For whom the palm?The answer gives the statistics, and it is difficult to accuse of bias: in men much more often angina and heart attack.And the age at which they overtake heart disease earlier than women.So call half-joking, "Take care of men!" Is a great deal of truth.Although they primarily need to lead a healthy lifestyle.And the women, according to the same statistics, the disease is usually pursued after menopause.
- Hereditary factors. With regard to genetics or heredity, they can not be entirely ruled out either.Especially if the parents suffered from diabetes or were hypertensive.
- Race. And whether race influences on coronary heart disease?The answer is in the affirmative: yes, influences.Most of all heart disease susceptible to African-Americans.They are more likely to have excess weight, high blood pressure and diabetes.
- Depression. Although people with heart disease often have depression, it does not explain the link between these two issues.Evidence suggests that depression itself may be a risk factor for heart disease, and can exacerbate current problems.
- Pneumonia and other infections. Some microorganisms and viruses are suspected in causing inflammation and damage to the arteries, which contributes to heart disease.The most common of them today is chlamydia and pneumococci, which were found in the plaques of the arteries of patients with heart disease.Other studies have shown that cytomegalovirus can have similar effects.
- sleep apnea. Sleep apnea, snoring, or the common people, is a pathological condition in which there is a temporary stop breathing movements.People with severe sleep apnea have an increased risk of high blood pressure, stroke and heart attack.
- Periodontal disease. Due to the fact that periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease, it increases the risk of heart disease.
- Alcohol. Finally, another reason or the threat of provoking coronary heart disease: alcohol.By itself, alcohol, high quality and moderately, not the enemy's heart.There are thousands of examples, there are whole nations and peoples who have the right to refute the assertion that a quality wine or strong drink dangerous.Georgian-centenarians can not imagine a day without a glass of red wine.They will join the French, Spaniards and Italians.The Scots do not believe that their national whiskey glass will cause harm.Correctly.The harm will all this, if drinking begins, instead of receiving the liquor, a man goes into the bout, lasting usually more than one day or even one week.So what is a lost drunkard, his appearance, demeanor, it is necessary to transform the heart: it is in the same miserable and hopeless condition.So it is not surprising, if the heart is an alcoholic simply does not stand up.
symptoms of coronary disease , angina, coronary heart disease
We all need to learn to listen to yourself.However, some people set a goal to listen and find the disease, most often - imaginary.But such small.And now it's not about them.Most of us live in, trying not to pay attention to the fact that somewhere inside ached, stabbed, jumped or jerked.The psychological burden of modern man, an overabundance of manmade stress automatically pushed state of physical well-being.And even when the really bad people "retards."Unfortunately, the "brake" may not work, or work quickly enough.But you can resist the beginning of the disease, if you know its symptoms.