Cardiovascular Diseases / / April 21, 2016
Arrhythmia - a violation of the heart rate (pulse) or heart rate - when the heart is beating too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia) or irregularly.
Causes and risk factors for cardiac arrhythmia
Usually, the heart works like a pump that delivers blood to the lungs and other parts of the human body.
To help this process, the heart has an electrical system, which helps him to fall in an orderly manner.
Causes of illness:
- an electrical impulse that signals in the heart, begins with the sinoatrial node (or SA node, or ACS - the sinoatrial node, the node Kish-flick - is subendocardial in the wall of the right atrium and innervated by sympathetic and right parasympathetic nerves of the heartcausing a negative and a positive chronotropic effect).This is the natural pacemaker of the heart.The signal leaves the SA node and runs through the heart on the current lead set.Different nerve messages indicate the heart beat slower or faster;
- irregular heart beat (arrhythmia - is a violation o
- abnormal (extra) signals;
- electrical signals which can be blocked or slowed;
- electrical signals traveling in different ways through the heart.
Some common causes of abnormal heartbeats:
- abnormal levels of potassium or other substances;
- a heart attack or heart muscle damage due to past heart attacks;
- heart disease, which is present at birth (congenital);
- heart failure or enlarged heart;
- overactivity of the thyroid gland (increased nervousness, bad mood, insomnia, rapid weight loss, excessive sweating and incomprehensible tremor in the muscles - all of these symptoms may be indicative of violations rabots thyroid Hyperthyroidism, or overactivity of the thyroid gland means that it produces too much.hormones, causing the human body uses energy available to it at an accelerated pace It can not be cured only drugs -. you need proper nutrition, as well as putting in order all the biomechanical processes in the body).
Arrhythmias may be caused by some substance or preparation, including:
- alcohol, caffeine or stimulants - such as for example amphetamines (short of -metilfeniletilaminy - central nervous system stimulants, phenylethylamine derivative action element.?.It is based on the release of neurotransmitters - dopamine and norepinephrine amphetamines -.... popular psychoactive recreational substances which can cause psychological dependence Their turnover is limited by international law class of compounds, including the actual amphetamine and its derivatives are usually amphetamines are common drugs and have clear psychoactive properties Some.they also found limited use in medicine in the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy), beta-blockers, cigarettes (nicotine);
- drugs that mimic the activity of the nervous system;
- drugs used to treat depression or psychosis.
Sometimes antiarrhythmic drugs prescribed to treat one type of arrhythmia, cause another type of arrhythmia.
types of heart arrhythmia
Some of the most common abnormal heart rhythms:
- Atrial fibrillation or flutter atria (this is one of the most common cardiac arrhythmia, which accounts for about 10% of all supraventricular paroxysmal tachyarrhythmias Ono.is a frequent complication of surgery on open heart - mostly due to acute myocardial infarction
THER causes atrial flutter -. pericarditis, chronic lung disease, rheumatic disease, thyrotoxicosis, sinus node dysfunction and other diseases that contribute to atrial dilation
.repetanie atria may occur in patients of any age, however, from having heart disease it is more common atrial fibrillation or atrial fibrillation -.. is the most common heart rhythm disorder, is chaotic atrial rhythm when the atrial frequency waves can reach up to 350-600 beats per minute.If untreated, the frequency of ventricular contractions - 100-180 beats per minute.It characterized by disorganized electrical processes in the myocardium of the atria.Chaotic, asynchronous stimulation can cover individual fibers or small groups of muscle fibers.This eliminates sistolirovannoe atrial contraction.
Atrial fibrillation is associated with an increased risk of complications and decreased quality of life, as increased risk of stroke, reduced exercise tolerance, increased risk of bleeding);
- atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia (AVURT, atrioventricular nodal rientri tachycardia -. The most common form of supraventricular tachycardia in adults Normal spread the word impulse from the sinus node to the ventricles is via the atrioventricular node Rings Heart valves separate the atria from the ventricles and prevent the direct passage of the pulse.. in the ventricles from the atria patient with nodal tachycardia atrioventricular node may be two ways of -. slow and fast Sometimes impulse can quickly spin inside the unit, and then almost simultaneously spread to the atria and ventricles of the tachycardia rate in this case is, as a rule., 160-200 beats per minute. at AVURT account for 85% of all supraventricular arrhythmias, excluding atrial fibrillation. The relationship between women and men here is 3 to 2. AVURT prevalent in all age groups. However, most of the clinical manifestations of the agesfrom 28 to 40 years);
- Heart block or atrioventricular block (AVB - a type of heart block, disturbance of the electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles, which often leads to disruption of the rhythm and hemodynamics of the heart; partial or complete cessation of impulse conduction from the atria to the ventricles The most common cause.is idiopathic fibrosis and sclerosis of the conducting system - primerno 50% of patients, and 40% -. The remaining cases with coronary artery disease accounted for medication - calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, etc., congenital abnormalities, increased vagal tonenerve, and other genetic anomalies, etc.).;
- Chaotic multifocal atrial tachycardia (unusual arrhythmia, often observed in acute disorders atrial function or as a transitional form of atrial tachyarrhythmia in the flow of atrial disease ending flicker frequency of these arrhythmias may be greater in the elderly and in patients with chronic.lung diseases, and sometimes atkzhe - the application of certain drugs - such as bronchodilators and stimulants beta-2 adrenergic receptors);
- Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (supraventricular tachycardia, SVT -. A form of arrhythmia, which caused a sharp violation of the regulation of the frequency and the electrical conductivity of heartbeats in the upper chambers of the heart during an attack SVT the heart beats rapidly and evenly Heart rate -. 140180 beats per minute, and sometimes longer When SVT sinoatrial node does not control the heart rate and heart rhythm abnormalities SVT may first appear in childhood or adolescence, although the disease can occur at any age, but more often -.. young people. in some cases, the cause of SVT - a congenital disorder following a heart attack begins for no apparent reason, but they can cause: physical activity, caffeine and alcohol This is due to abnormal circulation of the pulse on the heart muscle above the ventricles of the heart, or the appearance of it hearths... causing tachycardia, supraventricular paroxysmal tachycardia attack can last from a few seconds to several days and can disappear on their own without medication);
normal heart rhythm
The figure represented by a picture of an electrocardiogram (ECG) electrical activity of the heart of a healthy person.
normal rhythm of the heart rate is 60 - 100 beats per minute.
Sinus bradycardia Sinus bradycardia
characterized by a decrease in heart rate produced in the sinus node.It is characterized by a slow heart rate, typically in the range of 60 beats per minute (normal speed is 60 - 100 beats per minute).
ECG increased duration of the interval R - R, slightly reduced the amplitude of wave P, slightly increased T wave and the interval P - Q, extended diastole.
Ventricular tachycardia is characterized by a sudden beginning and ending as suddenly attack increased frequency of ventricular contractions to 150-180 bpm.min (at least -.. 200 bpm or within 100-120 beats per minute), typically at regular maintaining correct heart rhythm.
Normal speed rate is 60 - 100 beats per minute.
atrioventricular block - a violation of the conduction function, reflected in slowing or stopping the passage of an electrical impulse between the atria and the ventricles, leading to frustration and heart rate, and poor circulation.
This is a picture of the patient ECG arrhythmia, called moynazyvaetsya atrioventricular (AV) block.P-waves indicate the top of the electrical activity of the heart.Each P wave is usually accompanied by high (QRS) waves.QRS waves reflect electrical activity that causes the heart to contract.When the P wave is present without subsequent waves of the QRS (and heart rate), then indicate the presence of atrioventricular block, and a very slow heartbeat (bradycardia).
- sick sinus syndrome (SSS, sinus node dysfunction, Short syndrome, bradycardia syndrome and tachycardia - clinico-pathogenetic concept that brings together a number of arrhythmias caused by a decrease in the functional capacity of the sinus node.proceeds from bradycardia / bradyarrhythmias and usually associated with the presence of ectopic arrhythmias There are latent, manifested by intermittent and for SSS, as well as several variants of its course).;
- ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia (tachycardia - increased heart rate by 90 beats per minute
There tachycardia as pathological phenomenon -. Increase in resting heart rate and tachycardia as a normal physiological phenomenon - heart rate increase as a result of physical exertion, excitement or fear. tachycardia - not a disease but a symptom that may occur as a manifestation of many diseases most common causes of tachycardia: endocrine disorders, disorders of the autonomic nervous system, hemodynamic instability and various forms of arrhythmia to ventricular fibrillation is characterized by chaotic reduction of myocardial fibers with a frequency of 250..480 per minute, the lack of a coordinated contraction of the ventricles, the heart stop with shutdown of vital body functions VF -. it is often a complication of extensive transmural myocardial infarction
fibrillation of the heart -. heart condition in which the muscle fibers group heart muscles contract fragmented and uncoordinated, resulting inthe heart loses its ability to make the agreed cuts.This leads to inefficiency of the heart.An effective way to display the status of atrial fibrillation - defibrillation - is the effect on the heart by a single short electric pulse, which is used for voltage 1500-2500 V on the naked heart during surgery, when unopened chest - 4000-7000 volts.
There are atrial fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation.VF - a form of cardiac arrhythmia, characterized by a complete reduction of the individual asynchronous ventricular myocardial fibers causes loss of cardiac output and effective systole.VF means stop blood circulation and it is equivalent to death if not immediately hold a Cardiac Intensive activities.Most cases of cardiac arrest due to VF, so immediately before the ECG confirmation, start the electrical defibrillation, chest compressions, ventilation and drug therapy);
- Wolff-Parkinson-White (CPG syndrome - a congenital abnormality of the heart structure, the most common syndrome of premature ventricular combination electrocardiographic phenomenon of pre-excitation of the heart ventricles by an abnormal, further, atrioventricular connection and paroxysmal atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia, which occurs as a resultmechanism for implementing the re-entry of the electric field, the component parts which are usually -. and congenital atrioventricular additional atrioventricular connection, the myocardium of the ventricles and atria Most people do not have at the same time signs of heart disease in men syndrome detected more frequently than in women)..
Symptoms of cardiac arrhythmias
Arrhythmias may be present all the time, or they may come and go.The patient may feel symptoms of the presence of the arrhythmia.Or he may notice symptoms only in the moments of their activity.
Symptoms can be very mild or - very serious or even life-threatening.Common symptoms that can occur when there is an arrhythmia include:
- chest pain;
- delirium, dizziness;
- shortness of breath;
If the patient has an arrhythmia, the heart rate may be:
- too slow (bradycardia);
- too fast (tachycardia);
- irregular, uneven or missing a beat.
diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmia
doctor listens to the heart and pulse of a patient with a stethoscope.Blood pressure may be low or normal.
To monitor the heart and identify rhythm problems frequently use such diagnostic methods, such as:
- Holter monitoring during 24 hours (post conventional electrocardiogram of the patient during the day when it is customary physical activity In contrast to this diagnostic method, with.normal ECG patient is at rest - without any physical exertion often heart disease become noticeable only during physical activity -. for example, during exercise, during, or after stressful situations during a meal and sometimes - even sleep Therefore, Holter monitoring.cardiac activity during the day is much better can detect deviations in his work);
- monitoring events.