brain tumors in children
Oncology / / August 12, 2017
Brain tumors in children occur at least 16% of all malignant tumors of childhood.This group includes different in structure and nature of the tumor - the most frequently observed in children are typical of childhood medulloblastoma, which share similar clinical course.They rarely metastasize, their symptoms are caused by the pressure in the main tumor mass.
Clinical presentation in older children is somewhat different from that of young children, who have the most constant and early sign is the increase in head circumference with swelling and tension of the fontanelles, the divergence of the cranial sutures.This leads to long-term compensation phenomena of intracranial pressure.In older children, the identification of increased intracranial pressure may also be delayed due to the differences of the cranial sutures.Young children are often found well developed collateral venous network on the head, that along with the increase in the volume of the head, and bulging fontanelle tensio
Headache - one of the most common and early signs that accompany a brain tumor.Often, these pains are periodic in nature.In young children it is difficult to determine headache (because they can not talk) and it is determined by the recurrent worry baby, as he screams, t face with his hands, grabs his head and holding his hands on his head.A frequent symptom in brain tumors - vomiting.Vomiting can be either unaccompanied by nausea and nausea, and abdominal pain.Characterized by vomiting after a morning of sleep ( "morning vomit"), as well as after a nap.In the initial period of the disease is vomiting 1-2 times a week, during the height of the disease - more often.In young children, it can occur suddenly, often by changing the position of the head and torso.It is necessary to know in order to assist the child in time to avoid regurgitation (penetration of vomit into the airway).
for brain tumors is characterized by a change in the fundus in a stagnant nipples optic nerves, partial or complete atrophy or optic neuritis.Stagnation of varying severity - from a small swelling to a sharp edema with hemorrhage in the retina.Reduced visual acuity, which may be accompanied by double vision (diplopia).The fall in the midst of disease increases and can lead to total blindness.Cramps in brain tumors were observed much less frequently the above symptoms, and often accompanied by a large tumor size.Seizures are somewhat similar to those of epilepsy, but are rarely repeated;I have young children they can be diverse.When convulsions in a child throws his head back, eyeballs twitching, leaning in different directions.Hands folded in the hands and elbows, legs stretched and straightened.Slowing heart rate and breathing.During a seizure may be involuntary urination and defecation.When seizures give the child a horizontal position, prevent a possible fall under the head enclose a soft object, his head turned to the side to prevent the ingress of vomit in the respiratory tract.
Other clinical symptoms are largely due to the localization of the tumor in the brain.With the defeat of the cerebellum may be the coordination of movements, the child fall in a sick way.There may be trembling of the eyeball (nystagmus), shaking hands.The spread of the tumor on the spinal cord causes shaky gait without limb movement disorders, sometimes these kids can not sit - they must be maintained.In some lesions may be caused by endocrine disorders - cessation of growth, early sexual development;paresis of the limbs can be observed in other cases.Diagnosis is complicated brain tumors.On the basis of the above symptoms may be suspected brain tumor.X-ray examination is carried out, which may indicate changes in the bones of the skull, the divergence of the cranial sutures and digital impressions (the latter may be the norm).Often it is altered cerebrospinal fluid.To obtain it carried out a spinal puncture.Usually on the eve of a puncture a child make a cleansing enema and bath.6 is prepared sterile tubes that are labeled.The patient is laid on its side, legs pulled up to his stomach, his head tilted forward.In children, it is desirable to carry out this procedure under general anesthesia.The skin in the area of puncture lumbar, sacral, lower thoracic vertebrae treated with ether, an alcohol solution of iodine, alcohol.Itself a lumbar puncture - a medical procedure.After removing the needle from the spinal canal superimposed sterile drape, and it is sealed from the top bandage.The tubes were taken from the cerebrospinal fluid are sent to a laboratory, and the child for 3 hours under observation in the prone position.Mode after a lumbar puncture for 2 days in bed.A lumbar puncture is used not only to obtain cerebrospinal fluid, but also for administration to the vertebral canal of various drugs.The most characteristic feature in brain tumors is a protein-cell dissociation (increase in protein), which bears proof character throughout the disease.Less common is the protein-cell dissociation symptoms (normal protein numbers is an increase in cell number), and it is less permanent.Often, especially in young children, complicated by meningitis for a brain tumor.
Surgical treatment of brain tumors, which is the only radical method, unfortunately, is not always possible.It is limited by the fact that often the tumor is located in the vital points.If there is a possibility of operation in which part of a tumor is removed, in some cases resort to this.With palliation do craniotomy to reduce intracranial pressure.Sometimes surgery is performed to drain cerebrospinal fluid in order to relieve headaches or other undesirable symptoms.After surgery for brain tumors carried cerebral edema prevention, signs of which is, along with vomiting, disturbance of consciousness, and respiratory and circulatory disorders.Assigned large doses of hormones (corticosteroids), and intravenous infusion of hypertonic solutions and diuretics.Care should be taken to vomiting so frequent in cerebral edema, is not complicated by aspiration of vomit.
occupies an important place in the treatment of brain tumors because of their uncommon inoperability, radiation may be used depending on the tumor and the extent of its spread;Primary tumor is irradiated with the capture of adjacent healthy tissue;a tendency to spread the tumor is irradiated spinal cord subarachnoid space of the whole spinal cord.When brain irradiation pronounced side effects such as nausea, vomiting and hair loss.Due to the fact that the antitumour drugs poorly penetrate the blood-brain barrier, drug therapy is not yet found a wide spread in the treatment of brain tumors.
child with a malignant tumor of the brain due to a number of complications that accompany this new formation, requires a special care for.First of all, efforts should be made to eliminate or mitigate the painful symptoms that accompany a brain tumor.It is above all a headache, which is intolerable.In addition to the main therapeutic measures aimed at reducing the intracranial pressure, should pay attention to the child's posture, which he wants to take, and to help him in this.Sometimes children help some pats on the head.We must remember that children with a brain tumor is characterized by vomiting after a morning and afternoon nap.