Poisoning by carbon disulfide
Occupational Diseases / / May 15, 2016
Carbon disulphide - a colorless, oily liquid with a smell reminiscent of chloroform.Carbon disulphide is volatile and easily vaporize at normal room temperature.Couples it is 2.6 times heavier than air.It used mainly in the production of viscose fiber, cellophane, in the chemical industry as phosphorus solvent, fat, rubber;in the manufacture of optical glass and impermeable adhesives;agriculture - as an insecticide.MPC - 1 mg / m3.
disulphide enters the body mainly through the respiratory tract.Perhaps penetration through intact skin.Partially allocated unchanged in the exhaled air, the greater part undergoes chemical reactions and excreted in the urine, faeces and partly in the form of inorganic sulfates and other sulfur-containing compounds.Carbon disulfide is excreted in the milk of nursing mothers.It has a toxic effect, causing a primary lesion of the nervous system.
Symptoms of acute intoxication
mild intoxication similar to alcohol intoxication - excitement, unmotivated actions;moderate seve
The initial stage is characterized by the development of neurotic or asthenic syndrome with autonomic dysfunction.Persistent headaches, sleep disorders (drowsiness or insomnia, profuse dreams), fatigue, sweating, discomfort in the heart.Relatively early developing disorders of emotional sphere: irritability, mood swings.The objective at this stage symptoms of intoxication are drowsiness, fast exhaustion, weakening of memory and attention, emotional lability, the phenomenon of autonomic dysfunction, depressed conjunctival and pharyngeal reflexes.With the progression of intoxication increases the intensity of the complaints, enhanced autonomic disorders.Often, already at this stage it can be detected intoxication disorders of the peripheral nervous system, mainly in the form of a sensitive vegetative polyneuritis.
With further progression of the process of developing diffuse toxic organic lesion of the central nervous system, occurring on the type of encephalopathy or entsefalopolinevrita.At this stage of intoxication are observed intense headaches, sudden memory loss, sometimes hallucinations, depression, apathy (loss of interest in work, play, indifference to loved ones), confusion, anger unmotivated attacks.
Amid pronounced asthenic syndrome defined organic soft signs.The phenomena of polyneuritis in this stage can be expressed, but may be absent.
As in the functional and paroxysmal autonomic crises can be observed in the organic phase of intoxication.Along with changes in the nervous system, with chronic carbon disulfide intoxication observed a variety of disorders of the cardiovascular system - cardiopsychoneurosis (most of hypertensive type), myocardial.Prolonged exposure to carbon disulfide may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and coronary arteries of the brain.Many patients with carbon disulfide intoxication observed retinopathy (microaneurysms, dot or drain hemorrhages, exudates in the retina).
often found violations of the endocrine glands function (loss of libido, menstrual disorders and pregnancy in women, impotence in men), digestive diseases (impaired gastric secretion, gastritis, peptic ulcer disease), abnormal liver function.The blood is sometimes observed moderate hypochromic anemia, lymphocytosis monocytosis and low ESR.
Treatment of chronic intoxications
Vitamin B6 and glutamic acid should be considered as a means etiopatogepeticheskoy therapy.Glutamic acid prescribed orally 0.5 grams 3 times per day;Vitamin B6 - intramuscular injection of 1-2 ml of 5% solution every day.The course of treatment - 3-4 weeks.Symptomatic treatment.Multivitamins.Aeroionotherapy.When toxic encephalopathy - the use of antihistamines (diphenhydramine, etc.), Oxygen therapy.The functional stages of the disease and persistent phenomena of polyneuritis - a spa treatment.
In the initial stages of the disease - the temporary transfer of a job is the contact with toxic substances (for 2 months) and the appropriate treatment.Patients with functional stage of intoxication, difficult to treat, or wearing recurrent nature, require constant employment.
Organic stage of the disease (toxic encephalopathy) and expressed forms of polyneuritis is an absolute contraindication to continuing to work with carbon disulfide.
Sealing and automation of manufacturing processes.Individual protection measures.Preliminary and periodic medical examinations.