hydrogen sulfide poisoning
Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
Hydrogen sulfide - a colorless gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs.Hydrogen sulfide is formed and released during the decay of organic matter decomposition of rocks and minerals that contain sulphide compounds (pyrites, etc.), In mines and mines with blasting operations, as a by-product of gas and coke oven plants, the oil industry (mining and processingmnogosernistoy oil).Hydrogen sulfide is contained in the wastewater of various industries in the sewer network.MPC -10 mg / m3, in the presence of hydrocarbons (oil during processing mnogosernistoy) - 3 mg / m3.
enters the body mainly through the respiratory tract and through the skin.In the body, hydrogen sulfide is rapidly oxidized to sulfur and sulfates, which are excreted by the kidneys;about 7% of hydrogen sulphide is excreted unchanged via the lungs.Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic, has a strong irritating effect on the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract, affects the central nervous system;Like cyanide causes tissue anoxi
In mild poisoning the fore symptoms of irritant hydrogen sulfide: burning sensation, cramps in the eyes, tearing, photophobia, blepharospasm, conjunctival redness, runny nose, feeling of scratching in the throat and in the chest, coughing.The lungs can be auscultated dry wheezing.Chance reflex bronchoconstriction.
If poisoning moderate , in addition, there are signs of resorptive action: headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, weakness, incoordination, fainting IPT excited state.Sometimes there cyanosis, tachycardia, hypotension, diarrhea, dysuria.In the urine - a protein cylinders;there is increased body temperature.May develop pneumonia or bronchitis.
In severe poisoning - vomiting, cyanosis, disturbance of cardiovascular activity and respiration.In the future, there may come a coma with a fatal outcome.A more favorable during the coma may be replaced by motor excitation followed by deep sleep.After waking up - lethargy, stupor, asthenic syndrome.These symptoms or fade, or go into a more or less persistent effects of organic lesions of the central nervous system (encephalopathy), but often the output from a coma develops pulmonary edema with increasing pulmonary, and then heart failure.
Lightning, "apoplectic" form poisoning develops under the influence of very high concentrations (1000 mg / m3 and above) hydrogen sulfide.Almost instantly appear convulsions and loss of consciousness, rapid death occurs from paralysis of the respiratory center, and sometimes paralysis of the heart.
In subacute toxicity clinical picture develops slowly.Characterized by headaches, dizziness, weakness, fatigue, sweating, rhinitis, redness and dryness of mucous membranes in the mouth and throat with severe pain on swallowing, bronchitis, conjunctivitis.Irritation of the gastrointestinal tract: excessive salivation, nausea, vomiting, polypoid abdominal pain and diarrhea with stool in black and green.
the traumas of acute or subacute poisoning can be headaches, susceptibility to temperature increase with a fever, diarrheal diseases, pneumonia, myocardial, myocardial infarction, organic diseases of the central nervous system.
Persons, long time exposed to hydrogen sulfide, can be observed chronic inflammatory diseases of the eye (keratoconjunctivitis), upper respiratory tract (rhinitis, laryngotracheitis, bronchitis), gastrointestinal disorders;vegetoastenichesky syndrome with headache, dizziness, weakness, loss of power, sleep disorders, general sweating, hypotension, bradycardia, and so on. n. There may be vegetative polyneuritis.In contact with hydrogen sulphide in solutions of water may develop dermatitis and eczema.
in blood - moderate hypochromic anemia, Anisocytosis, poikilocytosis, monocytosis.Perhaps the development of habituation to the smell of hydrogen sulfide.
Eyes - cool gadgets with 3% boric acid;Installation of the eyelids of vaseline oil and indifferent ointments, instillation of Novocain with adrenaline in the conjunctival sac.
When expressed signs of resorptive action recommended intravenous methylene blue, or hromosmona, as well as the use of nitrites.It is believed that the introduction of hydrogen sulfide metgemoglobinoobrazovateley promotes the binding of methemoglobin and thus its interaction with fabric iron-containing enzymes.
When vascular insufficiency (pale gray color of the lips and skin, low heart rate, hypotension) are contraindicated bleeding under the skin injected norepinephrine, caffeine, kordiamin.Convulsions cropped anesthesia (nitrous oxide).
disability Mild acute hydrogen sulfide intoxication usually work capacity is restored within hours and days.In severe acute poisoning, disability period can last for about a month.To prevent persons complications after acute intoxication, subject to dispensary observation.
In primary forms of chronic intoxication is necessary temporary transfer to a job that is not related to the factor having irritating properties, and appropriate treatment.In recurrent or expressed forms of intoxication necessary removal from the relevant work for the long term.In the aftermath of the severe acute or chronic poisoning may be a question about the partial or total disability.
Prevention Measures for the prevention of hydrogen sulphide entering the air and quickly remove it.Individual protection measures.Preliminary and periodic medical examinations.