Poisonings with organic solvents
Occupational Diseases / / May 14, 2016
The group arbitrarily combined organic solvents, various organic chemical compounds (volatile liquid) used to dissolve solids as low molecular weight, and polymer (rubbers, rubbers, resins, plastics, paints, lacquers).Solvents are also used for the manufacture of adhesives, extraction and dissolution of fats, waxes, metal degreasing and m. P.
Solvents used primarily oil and coke hydrocarbons, terpenes, alcohols, esters, ketones, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and mixtures thereofvarious combinations, usually issued by a certain number or mark.
As volatility (evaporation speed) solvents can be divided into 3 groups: volatile, and of moderately low-volatile.
The group of volatile solvents include: ethyl ester, acetic acid esters, acetone, gasoline, benzene, toluene, dichloroethane, chloroform, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, methyl alcohol (methanol), ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and some other.
The group of non-volatile solvent media include: butyl alcohol (butanol), xylene, chlo
volatile solvents pose the greatest danger of air pollution of industrial premises.The solvents are more toxic and less volatile, may be less dangerous when working with them than less toxic, but it quickly evaporates.A certain importance is the rate of arrival, the saturation and the allocation of these substances from the body.The lower solubility in water vapor ratio (benzene, toluene, xylene, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride), the greater the possibility of acute poisoning.
On the other hand, a substance with a large vapor solubility coefficient in the water can enter the body in large amounts (as a result of dissolution in blood serum and other biological fluids) than material with a low coefficient of solubility.This implies that the capacity for the accumulation, and thus, the potential risk of chronic poisoning by repeated exposure to low concentrations of the above materials with high vapor solubility coefficient.
A number of solvents (benzene, dichloroethane, tricresyl phosphate) can cause poisoning as a result of their penetration through the skin.The greatest danger of poisoning through the skin are lipoidorastvorimye substance.
Almost all the solvent has on the central nervous system narcotic effect.In addition, some solvents (allyl alcohol, formaldehyde, benzene, acetic acid esters, acetone) have the ability to irritate eyes and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, and may cause inflammatory skin diseases and allergic (decalin, tetralin).A kind of toxic effects (liver, kidney and other organ systems) of individual solvents (chlorinated compounds) determined not only by their physico-chemical properties, and chemical reactions, in which these substances enter the body, as well as the influence of their metabolites, such as methanol,(formaldehyde and formic acid), ethylene glycol (glyoxal, oxalic acid, etc.), trichlorethylene (trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid), benzene (hydroquinone, etc.).
Below is a brief description of the toxic effects on the human body of certain groups of chemical compounds.
hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, or fatty (pentane, hexane, heptane, etc. - many of them are part of the different gasolines.);alicyclic (cyclohexane, cyclopentane, various terpenes);aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene, cumene).
Hydrocarbons fatty possess drug (non-electrolyte) properties and can cause acute poisoning mainly.In chronic poisoning observed neurasthenic syndrome.Alicyclic hydrocarbons have low toxicity.Aromatic hydrocarbons provide a narcotic effect;in addition, chronic intoxication they exert toxic effects on the blood system.
Solvents used monohydric alcohols - methanol, ethanol (foodborne) and derived from wood during its hydrolysis, hydrolysis and sulfite alcohols (propyl, butyl, allyl), dihydric (glycol), cyclic (cyclohexanone, methylcyclohexanone) and aromatic (benzyl alcohol).The alcohols may comprise mixtures of different solvents to esters, hydrocarbons.
alcohols except methanol and ethylene glycol are the least toxic solvents.They can be irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract.
Simple esters Diethyl
, diizonropilovy, dibutyl, vinyl, vinyl butyl ethers.Formic esters (forinaty, butilforinaty, amilforinat) and acetic (acetate, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, etc.), Acid, and acetone and resin (wood alcohol) of various grades solvents containing methanol (10-30%), methyl acetate (7-75%), acetone (10-66%), formic acid (12%) and other aldehydes and alcohols.
addition to annoying, have a narcotic effect, causing functional disorders of the nervous system (asthenovegetative syndrome), vegetative polyneuritis.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons are used as solvents (methylene chloride, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, dichloroethane, trichlorethylene), possess narcotic properties, and may also cause lesions of parenchymal organs, mainly the liver and kidneys and central nervous system.Poisoning can be either acute or chronic.
Among other technical solvents most potentially dangerous, from a hygienic point of view, are carbon disulfide, and tricresyl phosphate, causing heavy damage to the central and peripheral nervous system.