Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
As a result of various diseases of the bronchopulmonary apparatus and, in particular, acute and chronic nature of inhalation poisoning production in lung connective tissue growth may occur.This process is referred to as "fibrosis" term.Depending on the extent of the primary process fibrosis may be localized or diffuse.Toxic pulmonary fibrosi
diffuse pulmonary fibrosis may develop as a result of prolonged contact with some toxic substances as a manifestation of chronic intoxication.On the development and course of toxic pulmonary fibrosis affects the accession of non-specific infection bronchopulmonary apparatus, as well as sensitizing effects of certain toxic substances.Of great importance is the individual reactivity.
Clinical manifestations - chronic bronchitis, often with BOS syndrome, bronchiolitis, emphysema or gradual development of pulmonary disease.There are low-grade fever, testifying to the accession of infection;development of bronchiectasis.Asthenovegetative syndrome, degenerative changes in the myocardium in violation of its functions.Compensatory increase in hemoglobin, polycythemia.There may be leukocytosis with a shift to the left, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, increase of y-globulin fractions.
bezbronhitny possible option for the diagnosis of which the main role is played by X-ray examination.Radiographic manifestations of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis consist of gain and distortion of the bronchial vascular pattern, and cellular or mesh fibrosis.Often, especially when bezbronhitnom embodiment, there punctulate foci.Early developing emphysema, bullous, or diffuse.In advanced process marked a complete overhaul lung pattern, field sclerosis.
Toxic pulmonary fibrosis - a progressive disease, broncho-obstructive component which particularly contributes to a violation of the drainage function of the bronchi and the development of infectious complications - repeated, acute, protracted and chronic pneumonia, bronchiectasis, abscesses.Early appearance of respiratory failure leads to the formation of pulmonary-cardiac syndrome ( "pulmonary heart").
hard, although not a frequent complication of toxic pulmonary fibrosis is a bronchogenic lung cancer.
Limited toxic pulmonary fibrosis develops after toxic pneumonia.X-ray, he is no different from postpneumonic fibrosis.Clinically, the compensatory effect of lung capacity, respiratory insufficiency accompanied rare.It may be complicated by local inflammatory process.
Terms of toxic-chemical fibrosis are different and depend on many factors: the toxicity of the active substance, exposure, individual susceptibility and working conditions.
There are indications of a significant frequency of pulmonary fibrosis in workers of metallurgical plants, where there is a combination of adverse factors: pollution, air dust, adverse micro-climatic conditions.There are also observations over current pulmonary fibrosis arising from the combined effect of dust and gases (sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide).The clinical picture in such cases brighter than pneumoconiosis more pronounced effect on the central nervous system (due to a toxic component).
Basic Principles fibrosis therapy - normalization of bronchial drainage function, anti-inflammatory and desensitizing therapy, activating the protective functions of the body.Applied bronchospasmolytic agents, expectorants, antibiotics, sulfa drugs, glutamic acid;proteolytic enzymes.When asthmatic bronchitis: diphenhydramine, tavegil, calcium chloride (proteolytic enzymes and antibiotics used with caution).Physiotherapy: UHF, ultrasound, diathermy chest (in the inactive phase).Oxygen, aeroionotherapy.The recommended non-durable (20-40 min) inhaled oxygen-air mixture (40-50% oxygen), 2-3 times a day.
issue of disability is decided purely individual depending on the form and stage of disease.Out at a small acute clinical manifestations operation can be stored under appropriate conditions (avoiding contact with toxic substances, dust and so on. D.).With symptoms of pulmonary and cardiopulmonary insufficiency - a persistent limitation or disability (disability III and higher group).The indications for transfer to a disability can be a higher rate of relapse process.
Tempering, strict personal hygiene measures, dry warm clothes, waterproof shoes.Therapeutic exercise, gymnastics.Clinical supervision with periodic short courses of preventive therapy - bronchodilators, oxygen therapy, etc.