Anthracosis ( pneumoconiosis of coal dust )
Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
anthracosis arises and develops with long-term experience of work in the mines and inhalation of air with high concentrations of coal dust dispersed.Can anthracosis sick and persons processing and applying coal in unfavorable working conditions.
among workers in coal mines depending on the operating conditions encountered three types of pneumoconiosis: anthracosis, silicosis and anthracosilicosis.Anthracosis of anthracite dust in workers with less than 10 years is rare.From soft coal dust anthracosis develops even later (in 15-20 years).
to coal pneumoconiosis characterized by high intensity of bronchitis and emphysema, which distinguishes it from silicosis.More expressed and functional disorders of the apparatus of external respiration.Radiographic changes consist of diffuse interstitial fibrosis and few small focal formations on the background of emphysema.There are three stages of the disease:
Patients complain pas fatigue, shortness of breath on exertion, cough and ch
complaints of shortness of breath, even at rest, cough, fatigue, chest pain.Objective signs of emphysema and bronchitis are determined.X-ray picture is different increase in the number and size of small focal shadows, their localization, not only in the middle but also in the subclavian and subdiaphragmatic departments.Shadows of roots of the lungs expanded, their intensity increased.Often defined pleural changes in tops in interlobar slits in the diaphragm and severe emphysema.
III stage (under the influence of clean coal dust is rare) - complaints of general weakness, shortness of breath even at rest and during mild exertion, cough, often with phlegm, chest pain.Radiologically determined massive, the size of 5-10 cm, homogeneous darkening of irregular shape, with clear contours, which are located symmetrically or at different heights, in both or in one lung, among melkoochagovogo and cellular structures surviving from stage II.On the "punch" the pictures and better - on tomograms, in the center of tumor formation can be detected antrakoticheskie cavity.
anthracosis on the clinical and radiological course of a relatively benign, slowly progressive chronic disease.Joining TB worsens the prognosis.However anthracosis tuberculosis complication risk is considerably less than silicosis.
Workers coal mines may occur as anthracosis and silicosis.Anthracosis meets, as a rule, miners constantly working on the excavation of coal, workers stopes, lavas.At the same drifters, leading the preparatory work and breathe dust surrounding rocks containing greater or lesser amounts of silicon dioxide, is developed mainly silicosis or anthracosilicosis.Therefore, when deciding on the nature of the process should be given to the importance of the scrutiny of professional history and hygienic working conditions.
disability in stage I anthracosis in the absence of functional disorders and complications of working with a lot of experience can be left on the subject translated into less dusty land and careful medical supervision.With the rapid development of the disease, especially at a young age, the presence of chronic bronchitis, pulmonary respiration abuse further work is contraindicated in the mine.
course, labor is contraindicated in underground conditions when anthracosis II and stage III and the combination of any stage anthracosis tuberculosis.Patients contraindicated anthracosis work with any dust, irritant gases, adverse weather conditions, and with stage II and III - and considerable physical strain.