Asbestosis ( pneumoconiosis asbestos dust )
Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
Asbestos (mountain flax) - silicate fiber structure.MPC to asbestos dust and natural and artificial mixed dust containing 10% of asbestos - 2 mg / m3 of asbestos - 6 mg / m3 asbestobakelita - 8 mg / m3, Asbestos is widely used in industry.It is used in the chemical industry, in the automotive and aviation industries, engineering, fire-fighting and the construction business.
Asbestosis is characterized by slow flow, most likely to occur after 5 years of work with asbestos.Clinically, the process is characterized by the development of chronic bronchitis and emphysema.Among the first complaints are manifested much earlier rentgenomorfologicheskih changes, - shortness of breath, cough, and sometimes asthma.Cardiovascular disorders.With the progression of asbestosis - increase in cardiopulmonary diseases.
Radiological asbestosis important difference from other types of pneumoconiosis is the predominant involvement of the lower divisions with a predominance of cellular, mesh structures with mild or
Dyspnea at work and rise to a height, chest pain, cough, often mild, symptoms of bronchitis, dry pleurisy, boxed percussion sound in the posterolateral divisions, a slight decrease in lung capacity.
X-ray examination is determined by the expressed soft mesh for the middle and lower parts of the cells with an increase in the size of 2-4 mm;expansion and consolidation of the roots of the lungs;Point a few gentle shade of magnitude of 1 mm;less frequently pleural thickening and adhesions.
Shortness of breath when walking and moderate physical exertion, coughing, sometimes with sputum small and limited mobility of the lower edges of the lungs, breathing hard, common dry wheezing and pleural friction in the lower divisions.A significant decrease in lung capacity and the phenomenon of severe respiratory failure.
X-ray examination revealed fibrosis progression of the mesh, increasing the cell diameter 4-5 mm, the thickening of their walls, the spread of net formations medially and II to the ribs upward and laterally.The presence of a few knots in the middle and lower sections.Uniform darkening lung fields down and enhanced illumination of the top departments.The expansion and consolidation of lung roots.The development of pleural changes in the diaphragm, on the tops and interlobar slits.The initial increase in the right ventricle.
pronounced shortness of breath (sometimes alone), cough, often with phlegm, chest pain, often - pronounced cyanosis.Restricting the mobility of the lower pulmonary region, weakened breathing, and dry rales.In sputum - "asbestos bodies".Increasing pulmonary heart disease.
X-ray examination is determined by the transition sharply reinforced mesh and a small soft spot in the lower and near the gates of the lungs to diffuse the shadows, merging advanced lung roots with dimming in parakardialnye regions of the lungs, the shadow of the heart and the diaphragm merge with pulmonary sealing expressed Emphysematous upper parts of the lungsincrease in the right ventricle.Acceding spotting at this stage of the disease characterized by indistinct, blurred contours, low-intensity and small size.
most frequent complications of asbestosis are tuberculosis, acute severe pneumonia occurring, chronic pneumonia.There are indications of an increased incidence of lung cancer in asbestosis.