Poisoning plastics and synthetic resins
Occupational Diseases / / May 12, 2016
Plastics (plastics, plastics) - materials consisting mainly of natural or synthetic macromolecular compounds which are acquired in the processing properties of plastics, and as finished products are solids.Plastics characterized by a high strength at a low relative density, relative chemical stability;they do not corrode.Plastics
consist of a binder, a plasticizer and a filler.Furthermore, in the production process used lubricant polymerization accelerators (catalysts), stabilizers, and other various additives. Binders are synthetic resins.
plasticizers called low-volatile liquid that can dissolve in the plasticizing material, giving the product plasticity, and in some cases, and softness.As plasticizers used various organic compounds: esters of dibasic acids (phthalates, caprylate esters cresols and phosphoric acid, etc.), Chlorinated biphenyls (eg sovol), chlorinated naphthalenes (e.g., galovaks), castor oil, camphor, and many others.al. Plasticizers are sometimes included in the plastic in large q
When processing a synthetic resin and on its basis the resulting plastics, along with UNCURED monomer residues, the toxic effects may have preserved the intermediate reaction products - hardeners, stabilizers,plasticizers.
possible poisoning resulting from inhalation of small dispersed dust generated as a by vapor condensation, and the processing of plastics.Some components, in particular a number of plasticizers, can enter the body through the skin.
Upon heating the resin or composition, as well as the processes of hot or cold curing polymer and plastics processing, in which the resin or other components of the composition are applied to the reinforcing fabric, increasing the risk of release of volatile unreacted products, and at temperatures of decomposition can be allocated starting monomersand products of their thermal destruction (gaseous matter).
In emergency conditions (fire) may be acute poisoning highly complex pyrolysis products.Negative properties of polymer materials and products from them is the ability to accumulate on the surface static electricity, and generate on the human body high electric potentials which have an adverse effect on long contacts.
Plastics are divided into 4 groups:
1. Plastics based on macromolecular compounds obtained by polymerizing (polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, fluoroplastics, polystyrene plastic, polyacrylates, and others.).
2. Plastics based on macromolecular compounds obtained by polycondensation (phenolics, aminoplasts, amidoplasty, poliefiroplasty, polyurethane, silicone plastics, etc.).
3. Plastics are chemically converted on the basis of natural substances (celluloid, etrol).
4 Plastics based on natural asphalt and oil and tar (asphalt plastic).
polyethylene Polyethylene is produced by polymerization of ethylene.The most widely used polyethylene was VD (high pressure) which is used for manufacturing films, sheets, bottles, drums and various other products.
When using polyethylene as containers and packaging materials for foodstuffs migration revealed no toxic substances.However, the processing of polyethylene steaming hot (80 ° C) takes place oligomers migration.When heated to 150 ° PE stands C mixture of volatile products containing unsaturated hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide.
At still higher temperatures, thermal-oxidative degradation products stand out, irritating and toxic effects they can cause acute and chronic poisoning.
poisoning polyvinylchloride (PVC)
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), - a thermoplastic material obtained by polymerizing vinyl chloride in the presence of emulsifiers and initiators (organic and inorganic peroxides, potassium or ammonium persulfates, and others.) With the addition of plasticizers and stabilizers (compounds of lead, cadmium andother metals).MPC for PVC - 6 mg / m3.
In PVC processing air environment may be contaminated with vinyl chloride and other volatile organic compounds (phosphoric esters and phthalic acid, and others.).Parogazovozdushnye mixture resulting from thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC, can cause acute and chronic occupational poisoning.
symptoms. In chronic intoxication on the background of neurotic syndrome observed phenomenon of vegetative-vascular dystonia, gastrointestinal disorders, inflammatory skin diseases, upper respiratory tract, changes in the lungs (chronic pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis phenomenon).We describe the changes in the bones.Polyneuritis may be frequently observed dermatitis, eczema and other allergies.
poisoning polystyrene plastics
Polystyrene plastic produced by the polymerization of styrene with the use of plasticizers, initiators (organic peroxides), mineral fillers and dyes.Of these, made radio equipment, household items, toys, containers for the packaging of goods, wall tiles and so on. D. Contact with the air of industrial premises thermo-oxidative degradation products can cause acute and chronic intoxication.An increased incidence of angina, chronic tonsillitis.The main occupational hazard is the air pollution styrene vapors.
Akriloplasty (organic glass, plexiglass) have valuable optical and physico-mechanical properties.These include polymethyl acrylate, polymethyl methacrylate, polybutyl acrylate.Obtained by polymerization of esters of acrylic and methacrylic acid in the presence of peroxide catalysts, and the introduction of plasticizers and dyes.
The production facilities can release vapors are irritating to the mucous membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract.
Inhalation of high monomer concentrations cause acute poisoning symptoms: weakness, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, brief loss of consciousness.The toxic effect.
Fluorocarbon polymer - PTFE-3, 4-PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene).Heat-resistant and chemical-resistant insulating material.It obtained by polymerization of fluorinated ethylene.When heated to a high temperature fluoroplastics (sintering process), the air is polluted monomer production facilities and highly toxic products of digestion.MPC for fluoropolymers - 4-10 mg / m3:
dispersed Inhalation of dust may develop a "polymer fever", reminiscent in its picture metal fever.
The experiment established that the cause is fever fluoroplastic as an aerosol and gaseous products of thermal oxidative degradation of the polymer.degradation products when heated above 400 ° C may cause pulmonary edema.Perhaps chronic effects, in which the observed headaches, insomnia, chest tightness, functional disorders of the nervous system.
Phenoplasts obtained on the basis of phenol-formaldehyde resins (Bakelite equal marks) with fillers (kaolin, cellulose, and others.) And hardeners (methenamine, etc.).Depending on the composition of excipients, and other additives was prepared plastic (e.g., PCB, fiberglass Faol) having improved strength and other valuable physical properties.
During the manufacture of phenol-formaldehyde molding powders, as well as subsequent processing phenoplasts and their products, in industrial premises receives air phenol and formaldehyde.When the dust phenoplasts interaction with bodily fluids are also allocated a certain amount of free phenol (or other phenols) and formaldehyde (or other aldehyde).Thus, the main occupational hazards in these enterprises are phenols or formaldehyde.MPC for phenolic dust - 6 mg / m3.
aminoplasts obtained based on urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde and other resins.Fillers can be sulphite pulp, mica, etc. MPC for aminoplast -. 6 mg / m3.
Air environment at sites receiving and processing of these plastics may be contaminated with ammonia vapors and dust formaldehyde aminoplasts, which contains up to 50% of free formaldehyde.
Chronic exposure. have employed can be a professional contact and allergic diseases of the skin and upper respiratory tract.Occupational dermatitis usually occur when the formaldehyde content of the resin above 2%.
fiberglass reinforced plastics are plastics, consisting of a glass filler (calcium silicate and sodium) and a binder.As a last use phenol formaldehyde resin, urea-formaldehyde, poliefirakrilatnye, polystyrene, silicones, epoxies, and others. The binder addition polymers and mixtures thereof can include solvents, initiators, curing accelerators, dyes.
reinforced plastics are used as electrical insulation materials, high-strength structural parts, and others. In the production of glass-reinforced plastics, as well as in their application with atmosphere polluted by volatile substances, fiberglass dust.In addition, in a number of operations take place in regular contact and contamination of skin bonding, and other substances.
Workers manufacture fiberglass on the basis of phenol-formaldehyde, polyester, epoxy and polystyrene resins marked pathology peculiar effects of these resins: signs of damage to the central and autonomic nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the digestive tract.Often there are occupational dermatitis due to irritating and sensitizing effect many ingredients fiberglass and fiberglass skin injury.Melkouzelkovye characteristic bright red rash on the back of hands, forearms, in the folds and folds of the skin.Distributed nail infections (dullness, detachment).
poisoning phenol-formaldehyde resins
Furan phenol-formaldehyde resin is produced by polycondensation with furfuryl alcohol, phenol-formaldehyde resins.The air of production facilities, in addition to monomers contaminated furfural, maleic anhydride, acetone.
possible toxic liver damage, allergic skin diseases
Intoxication epoxy resins
Epoxy (Epon).Obtained by condensing epichlorohydrin with alcohols or phenols.For hardened resins that are used as insulators and insulation material are various hardeners (polyethylenepolyamines, hexamethylenediamine, and diisocyanates al.).Cured epoxy resins are used for manufacturing of paints, lacquers, impregnation etc. G.
In the preparation of epoxy resins, as well as their use air may be contaminated industrial premises starting materials and other ingredients used in the preparation of resin.
Epoxy resins have irritating and toxic, and sensitizing properties.This is attributed to the presence of reactive resin epo- and hydroxyl groups.In addition, irritating and sensitizing effect has most of the other substances contained in the resin composition (epichlorohydrin and especially some hardeners).
In chronic intoxication - complaints of irritation of the upper respiratory tract and eyes, headaches, fatigue, dyspeptic symptoms.
OBJECTIVE: swelling of the eyelids, conjunctivitis, catarrhal state of the upper respiratory tract, bronchial asthma, functional disorder of the nervous system with symptoms of autonomic dysfunction.Possible toxic hepatitis, chronic cholecystitis, gastritis, colitis.Allergic skin diseases occur mostly exposed parts of the body pas both the skin due to direct contact with the epoxy resin and other ingredients, and when exposed to dust and volatiles.