Oncology / / May 16, 2016
Endoscopic examination of the bladder is the most ancient among the endoscopic examination methods and has been used for over 100 years.Cystoscopy is performed blunt instrument - cystoscope, which is an optical system for viewing and a channel for introducing forceps biopsy and ureteral catheters.
Cystoscopy does not require special preparation of the patient.It is produced in urological or gynecological chair in the position of the patient on his back with knees bent.Cystoscope lubricated with a sterile liquid paraffin, or any other means increasing the sliding or without effort is introduced into the bladder as the catheter is introduced into the metal.
Indications and possibilities cystoscopy
1. If you suspect a bladder tumor or sprouting into it from the outside of the tumor.The grounds for such suspicions are gross hematuria and dizuricheskie disorders, when clinical, radiological, biochemical and other methods of research excludes non-neoplastic cause (eg, stones, nephritis and cystitis).It sh
2. When dispensary observation of patients at risk, in particular, persons who have contact with occupational hazards such as chemical carcinogens.
3. In the control study in terms of the dynamic observation of the results of treatment of patients undergoing treatment for papilloma or cancer, if treatment was localized and not accompanied by the removal of the bladder, it is advisable to hold annually, using a mandatory cystoscopy for early detection of recurrence.
4. If you suspect a kidney tumor.Gross hematuria in this case may be a first symptom of the disease.Cystoscopy should be performed immediately before start bleeding.This can immediately be established, from which there is bleeding ureter, and by probing the ureter produce retrograde pyelography.For other indications for the presence of kidney tumors (palpable tumors in combination with microscopic haematuria) before finally cystoscopy produce radiographic studies (intravenous urography, angiography) and scintigraphy, followed by cystoscopy may not be necessary.
probability of complications during cystoscopy is very small.There may be damage to the mucous membrane of the urethra, bladder and ureter, if the study produces the doctor does not have enough experience.
Contraindications to cystoscopy are acute infectious diseases, acute inflammation of the urethra, bladder, prostate, testicles and their appendages.Cystoscopy is technically difficult or impossible with a sharp narrowing of the urethra or reduced bladder capacity not exceeding 30-40 ml.