Oncology / / May 14, 2016
Leukemia - a systemic disease of hematopoietic tissue of tumor nature.Leukemia belong to a wider group of hematological malignancies, which are characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of cells of the blood.These diseases are generally divided into acute and chronic forms, depending on the degree of cell proliferation, and the clinical picture.In acute forms of proliferating cells differentiated very little, and the clinical course of the disease is accelerated.In chronic forms of differentiated cells is quite good, and the clinical course of a longer period.
lately been achieved encouraging progress in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children, as well as acute myeloid leukemia in adults (prolongation of survival).The incidence of acute leukemia is 5-10 new cases per 100 000 people per year, with a slight predominance in males at a ratio of 1.5: 1 between men and women.Certain subtypes of acute leukemia by age groups are distributed unevenly.Acute lymphoblastic
Playing the role of a number of factors, not studied until the end.Above all suspected role of viral and genetic factors.Studies in experimental animals allows to draw an analogy with a viral etiology of this disease in humans, but not yet prove it.We can also assume the role of genetic or exogenous factors on the basis of the observation that the incidence of some population groups much higher.This includes cases of the disease among identical twins (1: 5), patients with the syndrome Blum (1: 8) and Down syndrome (1:95), in sibs (1: 720), as well as people exposed to gamma-irradiation at largedoses (explosion of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki), or a long period of time, taking immunosuppressants.
Acute leukemia - the disease of clonal origin, arising from a single transformed cell.Replacement of normal hematopoiesis pathological gradually.
predominant subtypes of acute leukemia presented with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, followed by acute undifferentiated leukemia and acute monocytic leukemia.From a therapeutic standpoint acute undifferentiated leukemia typically include a group of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Symptoms Clinical symptoms and clinical findings of acute leukemia are varied.Weakness, fatigue, lack of appetite, pain in the joints can simulate early in the disease picture of infection, sometimes pronounced in children.Approximately 50% of patients entering the clinic for the first time, one can observe a fever and bleeding.The causes of bleeding are the reduction of platelets and plasma coagulation factors deficiency.Fever is almost always associated with infection.Neurological disorders can occur as a result of leukemic meningeal infiltration.Most patients have an enlarged spleen and liver.
results of laboratory tests usually reveal anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytosis.The most important indicator - the presence of immature blast cells in the bone marrow and circulating blood (even if in some cases there is a leukopenia).When the clinical differential diagnosis should be remembered, first of all, of viral and bacterial infections, purpura, aplastic anemia, as well as other tumor diseases, such as lymphoma.
Complications in the course of the disease are common.The main causes of death are severe infection, a deadly gastrointestinal bleeding and brain hemorrhage.Intracerebral hemorrhage often occurs in patients with very high or rapidly increasing number of white blood cells and can easily occur as a result of vnutrikapillyarnogo accumulation of blast cells.