Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning ( antio , metaphos , trihlormetafos , metilmerkaptofos , drug M- 81 , malathion , octamethyl , trichlorfon )
Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
Antio - oily dark brown liquid with a pungent unpleasant odor.MPC - 0.05 mg / m3. metaphos (vofatoks, methyl parathion) - yellow or dark brown oily liquid with an unpleasant odor.MPC - 0.1 mg / m3. Trihlormetafos - light or dark brown liquid with a pungent unpleasant odor.MPC - 0.3 mg / m3. Metilmerkaptofos (metilspstoks, metasistoks). Technical metilmerkaptofos - thick liquid with a pungent unpleasant odor.MPC - 0.1 mg / m3. drug M-81 - liquid.MPC - 0.1 mg / m3. Malathion (malaton, malathion) - thick liquid yellowish-brown color.MPC - 0.5 mg / m3. octamethyl (ompa, pestoks, shradan) - transparent liquid light yellow color with a faint odor.MPC - 0.02 mg / m3. chlorophos (diptereks, trichlorfon) comes in the form of a white solid or liquid thickened gray color with a pungent ethereal odor, MPC - 0.5 mg / m3.
Organophosphates (OPs) highly toxic to humans.Intoxication may occur as a result of inhalation of vapors, contact with skin and clothing, and ingestion of water and food.Risk of poisoning
picture of acute intoxication by various FOS in general similar.The difference lies in the speed of appearance and development of intoxication symptoms.Variability of symptoms also depends on the way the poison admission.
Inhalation poisoning first indicated a difficulty in breathing, and then - the phenomenon of damage to the central and autonomic nervous system.Contact FOS in the stomach, causing nausea, vomiting, intestinal cramps and tenesmus.Gastrointestinal disorders may occur in later periods of intoxication as a result of resorptive action.Skin observed increased sweating and local atrial fibrillation, if it enters the eye - visual disturbances (cramps, reduction of accommodation, impaired vision) Symptoms resorptive action manifested very early.
acute pulmonary toxicity
Headache, dizziness, weakness, anxiety and restlessness, decreased and loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, excessive salivation, hyperhidrosis, especially palms, weakness in the legs, swelling of the face, sluggish responsepupils to light.The symptoms of intoxication are observed in a few hours.At 2-3 day can still be saved weakness, headache, fatigue.
moderately severe case of acute poisoning of moderate severity, in addition to these symptoms in the future (after about 3-6 hours) appear shortness of breath, severe sweating, twitching of the eye muscles, tenesmus.The gait becomes uncertain.The pupils are constricted, sluggish reaction to light.There may be diplopia, nystagmus, increased salivation and lacrimation, cough.There may be severe asthmatic attacks, epileptiform seizures.Hypotension.
In severe cases of poisoning is the leading hypoxemic syndrome.Along with the above clinic may be: blackout, respiratory failure, the pattern of toxic pulmonary edema, upset of sphincter function, contraction of the pupils (miosis) with the absence of reaction to light, diarrhea, sharp tremor, muscle spasms of the whole body, gradually intensifying, coronary insufficiency symptoms, a sharp decline in cholinesterase activity of the blood, arterial hypoxemia, acidosis, increased blood clotting.In the future, coma and death from respiratory paralysis.
effects of acute poisoning may be vegetative trophic disorders, radikulopolinevrit (arising after 7-10 days of relative clinical well-being), flaccid paresis and paralysis of limbs, neurasthenic, psychasthenic or hypochondriac syndrome, the phenomenon of toxic encephalopathy.
In chronic poisoning characterized vegetoastenichesky syndrome.Complaints of headaches, dizziness, feeling of heaviness in the head, at the temples compression, memory loss, insomnia, drowsiness, fatigue, poor appetite, nausea, weight loss.Objectively: a slight contraction of the pupils, vasovegetative violation (red dermographism, hypotension, moderate bradycardia), cardiovascular disorders (muscle changes, violation of rhythm and conduction in ECG), dyspepsia and liver damage, decreased function of the adrenal cortex and increase thyroid function.
In cases of more severe intoxication can occur as mental changes, depression emotional and affective sphere, moderate intellectual deterioration, memory loss, seizures, transient loss of consciousness, signs of organic lesions of the central nervous system (toxic encephalopathy).Women exposed merkaptofosa, menstrual disorders have been observed.Octamethyl merkaptofos and can cause dermatitis development.
The earliest indication of the toxic effect of FOS is a decrease in cholinesterase activity.A sign of intoxication is considered to be its reduced activity by 25% or more expressed poisoning phenomena develop at lower blood cholinesterase activity by 50-70%.Often there are changes in the composition of peripheral blood: hypochromic anemia, reticulocytosis, increasing the number of basophilic-grained red blood cells and the appearance of Heinz bodies, in some cases - not sharp increase in methemoglobin, moderate leukopenia or leukocytosis, toxic granularity of neutrophils, reducing ESR.
To put on a gas mask and make the victim from the contaminated area.Skin liquid substance - handle its 5-10% solution of ammonia, 2-5% solution of chloramine or 2% sodium bicarbonate solution (can be removed with cotton wool or a drug with a cloth, then rinse with water and soap).Remove contaminated clothing.In case of contact with the substance in the eyes - rinse thoroughly with water.After contact with the poison in the stomach - an emergency gastric lavage.If lavage is not possible, give the victim drink several glasses of water and cause an artificial vomiting.Then give to drink activated charcoal, in 10-15 minutes - saline laxative.
The enterprises, which produces FOS and pa stores have to have all the necessary facilities to provide emergency assistance to the victims.
In the case of the initial signs of chronic poisoning of the WCF must be suspension from contact with these drugs.A more pronounced intoxication and with recurrent forms contraindicated work with them.
During intense exposure is recommended to give 2-3 times a day for 0.5 g pancreatin, linking many of the WCF and a positive effect on the function of the gastrointestinal tract.Preventive nutrition.