Poisoning by thallium
Occupational Diseases / / August 12, 2017
Thallium - silvery-white metal.Sulfate, carbonate, chloride, acetate, thallium - colorless crystals.Thallium is used in the composition of some alloys, as amalgam in the manufacture of thermometers.Acetate and thallium sulfate are used to etch the grain and preparing poison for rodents, are used in human and veterinary medicine - for hair removal.Thallium carbonate is a member of several optical glasses.MPC for thallium iodide, bromide - 0.01 mg / m3.
thallium salts enter the body through the mouth and the respiratory tract, are absorbed through the skin.Thallium is accumulated in the body, in particular the hair, displayed mainly through the kidneys and intestines.Thallium and its compounds are toxic.By the nature of the toxic effect on the body, they resemble lead and arsenic.Cause damage to the nervous system, gastrointestinal tract and kidneys, trophic skin changes.
Symptoms Acute poisoning Acute poisoning
often observed at casual meal contaminated with thallium compounds.A few hours later app
sleep disorder, mental stimulation, then the pain in the legs, tingling in the soles, cramps in the calf muscles, weakness in the limbs.Further notes trembling eyelids, polyneuritis symptoms of hair loss.Loss of appetite, emaciation.
possible damage to the liver and kidneys of varying severity.Sometimes - menstrual disorders in women, impotence in men.There may be a mental disorder (or manic depression).There are lesions of the oculomotor system (paralysis of external eye muscles), and visual disturbances as a result of violation of accommodation, inflammation and secondary optic atrophy, cataracts.There have dermatitis, rash lishaepodobnye, atrophic changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissue with symptoms of seborrhea, trophic nail infections.
First aid and treatment
If poisoning by mouth should be immediately introduced into the stomach of 1% potassium iodide solution, then perform gastric lavage with water with activated carbon and 0.3% sodium thiosulfate.Next, give a saline laxative.Combination therapy for 4-21 days with activated charcoal, 0.5 g / kg body weight two times a day (thallium promotes excretion in the faeces) and potassium chloride 3-9 g per day orally (thallium inhibits reabsorption in the renal tubules andthus increases the excretion of urine).Intravenous administration of sodium thiosulfate (10 mL of 20% solution), glucose (20 to 40 ml of solution), vitamin B1 (30 mg).
There are indications that in severe acute poisoning effectively exchange transfusion, prolonged hemodialysis (during the week), forced diuresis.When lesions of the peripheral nervous system - vitamin.
disability If you notice signs of chronic intoxication shows a temporary suspension from work and conduct appropriate treatment.At relapse of intoxication or expressed manifestations must be permanent employment.
Work gloves, overalls;sealed glasses, with possible separation of dust is required to use respirators.Observe good personal hygiene.Preliminary and periodic medical examinations.
Recommended Definition 1 time per month thallium content in the urine of the norm - 48.931 pmol / L.