Occupational Diseases / / May 05, 2016
Fluoride - yellow gas with a strong odor.By connecting to the air with hydrogen is converted into hydrogen fluoride - a colorless gas, with moist air forming fog. Hydrofluoric acid (aqueous solution of hydrogen fluoride) - a colorless liquid. Sodium fluoride - a white crystalline powder. Cryolite - natural and artificial. sodium silicofluoride - «rat poison" - a colorless powder.
Fluorine and its compounds are applied in the production of organofluorine compounds, fluorinated rubbers, plastics, freons, superphosphate, during the electrolytic production of ammonium and other pesticides and quality to MAC hydrogen fluoride - 0.5 mg / m3.;salts of hydrofluoric acid - 1 mg / m3.
Fluoride is a bio-elements.The body comes mainly through the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract.Hydrogen fluoride Inhalation completely absorbed mucosa of the upper respiratory tract.The blood circulates in a complex with serum albumin.Main station - bone (delayed 96% of absorbed fluoride);teeth, hair.Provided
sharp irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract, conjunctival ulceration (especially under the action of hydrogen fluoride and elemental fluorine).Soreness and swelling of the nose, hard healing ulcerations of the eyes, nose, mouth, nasal bleeding.Aphonia.Bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, toxic, acute circulatory failure.
possible development of toxic hepatitis, kidney disease.The increase in hemoglobin and red blood cells, a decrease in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukopenia, relative lymphocytosis.The outcome of poisoning may be bronchitis, bronchiectasis with pulmonary fibrosis, degenerative changes of the myocardium, liver damage.
Accidental entry into the ( "rat poison") - a heavy gastroenteritis: vomiting (bloody), bloody diarrhea, sharp pains in the abdomen, subcutaneous hemorrhage.The excited state, paresis, tremors, convulsions, respiratory distress and cardiac, renal damage.
Chronic poisoning with hydrogen fluoride and fluoride ( "ftorizm»)
Early signs: sensitivity disorders of teeth and gums, teeth serration and effacement, brownish staining of enamel caries;gingivitis and periodontal disease;burning, pain, and swelling of the nasal ulceration, and perforation of the nasal septum.Hemorrhagic events (nosebleeds and bleeding gums).Bronhospastichesky syndrome.Dyskinesia of the stomach and intestines.Albuminuria, microscopic hematuria.
When expressed poisoning - chronic pneumonia;bronchial asthma, which is usually preceded by chronic bronchitis with symptoms of bronchospasm, pulmonary fibrosis.Pain in the heart, sometimes the type of angina.Degenerative changes in the myocardium.Vegetative-vascular dysfunction, often with hypertension.Mixed form of cardiovascular circulatory failure with predominance of vascular disorders.Violation of cholesterol metabolism.Potentiating effect on the development of atherosclerosis.Gastritis.Perhaps the development of peptic ulcer disease.Hepatitis.
slow changes of red and white blood count: hypochromic anemia or polycythemia, leukopenia or leukocytosis, lymph and monocytosis, qualitative neutrophil changes, slow blood clotting.Increased excretion of fluoride in the urine (up to 10-40 mg / l).
Women can oligomenorrhea, adnexitis, decreased lactation capacity.The accumulation of fluoride in biological media of the mother and fetus with increasing gestational age.The high sensitivity of women to the action of fluoride during pregnancy and lactation.
Couples hydrogen fluoride cause itching, irritation of the skin until the appearance of bubbles.It affects the face - swelling, skin maceration century, nasolabial folds, corners of the mouth.Hydrofluoric acid has a cauterizing effect abruptly - vesicular dermatitis, difficult healing ulcers, extensive necrosis.
most specific changes in the skeletal system - the so-called bone fluorosis , caused mainly salts of hydrofluoric acid and cryolite.
Complaints stiffness, stiffness in the spine and large joints, pain in the joints, like rheumatoid (in severe cases painless thickening in the field of bone ridges and protrusions pelvis, shoulders, arms, legs).The general state of health may be satisfactory, with no reduction in performance.The process is systemic, affecting the central spongy bone (spine, pelvis, ribs, shoulder blade) and long bones.
When X-ray skeleton study defined a generalized osteosclerosis with the new formation of bone from the endo- and calcification of ligaments and periosteum.
There are three stages of bone fluorosis:
I stage - coarsening of bone structure with bone thickening beams ribs and spine;sclerosis, periostozy endostozy and long bones.
I I stage - massive bone sclerosis with partial calcification sites of attachment of muscles and ligaments.
III stage - complete fossil bones and ligaments of the spine, pelvis and long cylindrical bones.
First aid and treatment
Fresh air, Thermo-soda inhalation, inside - codeine dionin, diphenhydramine, calcium supplements, expectorants, anti-anxiety agents.In more severe cases, intravenous calcium chloride, cardiovascular drugs, oxygen, early administration of antibiotics.Complete rest, immediate hospitalization.
If skin burns hydrofluoric acid - excessive wash water for 10-15 min followed by treatment with a surface baked with gauze moistened with 10% ammonia solution, re-flushing with water and applying ointment magnesia (MgO 1 part and 2 parts of white petrolatum or glycerin) 2times a day.
If it affects the skin sodium silicofluoride - Goulard lotion or 2% boric acid solution.
Ointments fat based not apply.Treatment of chronic poisoning - syndromic.
disability At the initial stage of intoxication is recommended to transfer to another temporary employment and appropriate treatment.When persistent phenomena of hepatitis, polyneuritis, as well as stage II bone fluorosis, the severity of other injuries of the musculoskeletal system with persistent pain and dysfunction of further work with fluorides contraindicated.Women during pregnancy and lactation should be suspended from work with fluorides.
Mechanization and automation of basic production processes.Sealing equipment.Effective ventilation.Dust mask.Protective clothing.Instructing workers.Personal hygiene measures, the prohibition of smoking and eating in the shop.Remediation of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract.After work - inhalation of 1-2% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution.Preventive nutrition;dairy products rich in calcium.Juices, fresh vegetables, fruits, watermelons, melons and grapes.
Persons under 18 are not allowed in the production of superphosphate.