White phosphorus poisoning
Occupational Diseases / / May 04, 2016
white phosphorus - a colorless soft waxy mass, yellowing to light, easily oxidized and spontaneous combustion.
enters the body through the respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract and skin (for burns).Provided through the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and sweat.Acute poisoning production (pairs) are very rare.
strong poison.It provides local and cauterizing general resorptive effect.In acute poisoning affects the heart, causing fatty degeneration of internal organs, especially the liver (acute yellow atrophy of the liver).Chronic exposure - disorders of mineral metabolism.Poisoning by phosphorus are found in the production of phosphoric bronze and various flammable mixtures.MPC phosphorus - 0.03 mg / m3.
If poisoning pairs: headache, dizziness, nausea, bradycardia.In severe cases - the excitement, alternating with depression of the nervous system.Symptoms of myocardial infarction, heart failure, possible collapse.After a few days develops hepatitis.
ingestion: dizziness, abdominal pain, vomiting, glowing in the dark afar garlic smell masses.The collapse may occur before the onset of gastrointestinal disorders.In severe cases within 2-3 days develops acute yellow atrophy of the liver.Weakness, bruising, hematuria, nephritis.Agitation, insomnia, hallucinations.Reduced cardiac activity, drop in body temperature, collapse, coma.Death is possible on day 7 and later.A lethal dose - 0.05-0.15 g
Headaches, weakness, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea, pain in the limbs, irritability.Chronic rhinitis, laryngotracheitis, bronchitis, sometimes gingivitis, stomatitis, periodontal disease, tooth decay;chronic gastritis, hepatitis.Functional disorders of the central nervous system.Typical changes in the bones: the periosteum thickening and loosening, osteoporosis;in adolescents and young adults - transverse striations epiphysis.
In the old literature describes the "phosphor" necrosis of the jaw, starting as a normal apical periodontitis or the boundary with pain, swelling of the gums and tooth loosening, followed by suppuration and periostitis.Currently, "phosphorus" necrosis hardly occurs.
phosphorus Skin contact, due to its rapid ignition, causing severe burns.
First aid and treatment
For oral poisoning: as quickly as possible to give an emetic (0.2-0.5 g of copper sulfate dissolved in 0.5 cups of water, drink a teaspoon before the vomiting).Gastric lavage 0.1-0.2% copper sulfate solution (formed on the phosphor particles of phosphor copper foil which prevents cauterizing effect).
Skin: immediately wash the affected area with abundant running water (in place of phosphorus burning under the water current cut clothing, since phosphorus can burn under the cloth).It is better to immerse the affected arm in a 5% solution of copper sulfate, a fluid bed or a pair of tweezers to remove all the pieces of gauze phosphorus.It is possible to use a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution.Hold hands in a solution as long as the affected area is no longer smoke when removing hands from the solution.Inspect this place in the dark and luminous spots remove with tweezers.Then, drying up the wet cast bandage with a solution of potassium permanganate (1: 1000).Ointment dressings absolutely contraindicated.Butter, milk, eggs, fats, castor oil is contraindicated (promote dissolution and absorption of the poison).
Treatment of chronic intoxications - restorative therapy, the purpose of the vitamin C, dental health.
diseases of the teeth and gums are subject to immediate removal from the treatment at this time working from contact with phosphorus.The presence of symptoms of poisoning by phosphorus unsharp even a contraindication to further work with him.
Replacement red, complete sealing of white phosphorus production processes, cleanroom food ban, smoking, personal hygiene measures, dental health and care.Preventive nutrition.To work with phosphorus are not allowed women and teenagers.Initial and periodic inspections.