Poisoning by caustic alkalis
Occupational Diseases / / May 02, 2016
Alkalis caustic - soluble hydrates of metal oxides. sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) -solid white substance. potassium hydroxide (caustic potash) - white crystalline substance. Calcium Oxide - (quicklime) - white amorphous substance readily combines with water to release large quantities of heat. calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) - white powder ( "pushonka");solution in water - «lime water» , slurry in water - «milk of lime» .MPC caustic alkali (calculated as sodium hydroxide) - 0.5 mg / m3.
Alkalis are used in the textile, paper, chemical, leather industry, in soap making and others.
enter the body through inhalation, casings mouth (incidental ingestion), have dramatically irritating and cauterizing effect on the skin and mucous membranes.Caustic alkali deeper than the acid penetrate into the tissue, protein is dissolved to form the body of alkaline albuminates, cause necrosis of collimation - soft deliquescent scab.Particularly dangerous to hit even the smallest amount of alkali in the eye.
Acute poisoning through the respiratory tract - irritation of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, bronchitis.Perhaps the development of pneumonia.
Acute poisoning when entering through the mouth - burn the mucous membranes of the mouth, esophagus, stomach;severe pain during gastrointestinal tract.Painful vomiting masses of chocolate or brown, odorless, bloody diarrhea, excessive thirst, urinary retention.Reduced cardiac collapse.
Complications - perforated peritonitis, scarring of the stomach.
Skin - severe burns.
case of contact with eyes - glassy swelling, sudden reddening of conjunctiva, corneal opacity, iris lesion, possible blindness.
In working on the production of cement (lime effects) occur rhinopharyngitis atrophic, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis is possible;gastritis, gastroduodenitis, peptic ulcer.Characterized lime skin lesions (mainly of the hands and forearms): dryness, cracking, desquamation, ulceration of the fingers, followed by scarring.Nodular dermatitis, painful sores of the "bird's eyes".Eczema.Trophic lesions of nails - nails dull, brittle, cracked at the edges, separated from the nail bed.
After contact with skin wash alkalis abundant running water for 5-7 minutes.After washing with water - lotions of 5% solution of acetic, tartaric, citric or hydrochloric acid.In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with wide-eyed cold water for 10-30 minutes.Drip 0.5% tetracaine solution or a 1% solution of novocaine, the remaining slices of lime to remove wet swab.ophthalmologist's consultation.
The first 2-3 days - beaten egg white, vegetable oil and animal oil (no salt), mucous soups (in the form of heat).With 3 days to add a well-pounded porridge with butter.
Individual protective equipment - close-fitting clothing, gloves, safety glasses, a leather-rimmed, respirators.After working with lime dust lime flushing with warm water, a change of underwear and clothing.Application of ointments and creams.