Occupational Diseases / / May 01, 2016
Toxic encephalopathy is a diffuse organic brain damage that can develop after a severe acute intoxication with neurotropic poisons and chronic occupational neurointoxications.
As is known, the early clinical manifestations of a variety of chronic intoxication, and most cases are functional disorders of the central nervous system.With the progression of intoxication is a gradual escalation of neural disorders in the stage of organic changes - the picture of toxic encephalopathy.The organic nature of the disease can often be masked for a long time or asthenic neurotic traits, and therefore the transition from the functional to the organic phase is not always detected in a timely manner.
to the initial form of toxic encephalopathy is characterized by the following symptoms: complaints about persistent headaches, dizziness, memory loss, general weakness, fatigue, sleep disturbance, etc. Against the background of a sharp asthenia appears dispersed organic symptoms, which does not fit into the pi
most often with toxic encephalopathy suffer stem and diencephalic departments are often involved in the process cerebellar, optical-vestibular and extrapyramidal system.A common feature of toxic encephalopathy is a distraction injury.However, each toxic substance gives the disease its clinical features.Thus, when manganese encephalopathy on a background of diffuse brain pathology beginning to emerge focal subcortical symptoms.When encephalopathy due to chronic exposure to carbon monoxide, clinical feature is the development of cerebrovascular disorders of cardiac angiodistonicheskih taking place against a background of diffuse organic brain damage.
mental disorders at various encephalopathies also have some special features.Thus, for carbon disulfide encephalopathy is characterized by a decrease of activity, lack of initiative, depressed mood, sadness, indifference to all that interested before the patient side of life.The same astenodepressivnyh syndrome often occurs when encephalopathies, which developed as a result of chronic intoxication leaded gasoline . Mercury encephalopathy peculiar combination of elevated, emotional excitability with confusion, painful shyness, indecision and self-doubt.
Terms of toxic encephalopathy different.Thus, when manganese intoxications with carbon disulfide and encephalopathy develops much faster than in chronic intoxication by mercury, lead and carbon monoxide.
The flow of toxic encephalopathy inherent resistance of pathological manifestations, the presence of residual effects in the long term, and a tendency to progression is in contact with a toxic agent.Pathological findings indicate that the basis of toxic encephalopathy are vascular lesions of the brain and diffuse degenerative changes in the brain tissue.
Treatment Treatment of toxic encephalopathy presents considerable difficulties.Implement it is expedient in stationary conditions.The most effective complex therapy (a combination of etiological, pathogenetic and symptomatic of exposure);the use of antidotes and chelating metals intoxications;use of drugs that normalize oxidation processes, enzyme disorders, as well as improving the exchange of amines (glutamic acid, glucose, ascorbic acid, vitamins B1, B6, and others.);purpose funds, improve cerebral blood circulation and eliminate liquorodynamic disorder (injection of aminophylline, papaverine, dibazola, magnesium sulfate);oxygen therapy;the use of central nervous system stimulants (caffeine), antihistamines (diphenhydramine, suprastin) and psychotropic drugs.Patients with toxic encephalopathy in need of constant medical supervision and carrying out repeated courses of therapy.
Toxic encephalopathy is in all cases an absolute medical contraindication to continuing to work with toxic substances, as well as other unfavorable factors of production (overheating, noise, considerable tension, work in night shifts, and so on. D.).Individuals with initial forms of encephalopathy mostly disabilities.When expressed forms of encephalopathy may be a total loss of ability to work.