ethylene glycol poisoning
Occupational Diseases / / May 01, 2016
Ethylene glycol (antifreeze) - viscous, colorless liquid sweet taste.Included in the unfrozen cooling fluid to the radiator, as antifreeze motors (50-60% aqueous solution).It is used in pharmaceutical, textile and leather industry, in the preparation of a number of synthetic materials as a plasticizer, in electronics.
enters the body through the respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, it is possible absorption through the skin.In the body it is slowly oxidized to form oxalic acid.Report the news (slow).Because of the low volatility is no risk of acute intoxication, chronic poisoning are possible.Very toxic in contact with the mouth (as a surrogate for ethanol).The latent period - from 2 to 13, more typically about 5 hours.Toxic as ethylene glycol, and formed in the body of its cleavage products (glyoxal, oxalic acid).Vascular Poison (causes a disturbance of the permeability of vascular wall with a selective effect on the brain capillaries), has a narcotic effect and protoplasmic.It is expressed b
Symptoms Acute poisoning by ingestion
lethal dose - 80-90 ml.The possibility of death from taking 30-50 ml.
If poisoning mild - headache, dizziness, intoxication, pain and epigastric region, nausea, diarrhea, and weakness.Deaf heart sounds, bradycardia.Sensitivity to palpation in the area of the bladder.The urine often traces of protein.
poisoning moderate - dizziness, staggering when walking, impaired vision, diplopia.Excitation is replaced by oppression.Confusion.Tachycardia, hypertension.Positive symptom Pasternatskogo, nephrosonephritis expressed oliguria.Enlarged liver.Bronchitis.
Severe poisoning - unconsciousness, cyanosis.disordered breathing, weak pulse, tachycardia, hypothermia.Convulsions clonic and tonic, involuntary urination and defecation.Possible early death (1-2 days) from the coma of central origin.At the exit of the first period - the development of renal failure.Further outcome depends on the state of the kidneys.Nephritis, pyelonephritis with anuria (similar to sublimate the kidneys).Azotemia.Uremic coma.Liver damage.Complications - pneumonia, pulmonary edema.Late death (13-20 dnyuy).
In chronic occupational inhalation poisoning marked lethargy, hypersomnia.Conjunctival irritation and upper respiratory tract.Cardiopsychoneurosis with a tendency to hypertension, tachycardia.Anemia or some activation of erythropoiesis.The tendency to leukopenia, Urine - protein, red blood cells.
First aid and treatment of acute poisoning
Immediate plentiful (8-10 liter) gastric lavage with warm water or 2% sodium bicarbonate solution.Intestinal.Apomorphine subcutaneously - 0.5 mL of 1% solution.Bleed (200-400 mL) with moderate to severe poisoning, followed by intravenous injection of glucose or blood liquids (when blood pressure drops phlebotomy is contraindicated).Early intravenous 5-10% ethanol at a dose of 1 ml per 1 kg of patient's weight (to prevent splitting of ethylene oxalate).Mandatory repeated intravenous administration of calcium chloride (neutralizes the oxalic acid).
In severe cases - hemo or peritoneal dialysis, forced or osmotic diuresis.Oxygen therapy, cardiac facilities.Vitamin B complex, C, of P. Bile drugs.
In chronic poisoning: restorative and sedation;vitamins, intravenous infusion of glucose and calcium chloride;lipotropic, choleretic, antianemic means.