Human exposure to electromagnetic fields
Occupational Diseases / / April 30, 2016
airwaves - radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) - part of a broad electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths from a few millimeters up to several kilometers.The main parameters are the EMF oscillation frequency in hertz and wavelength.
EMF can be characterized as the frequency of oscillations, and a wavelength (eg, VHF or UHF, microwave or microwave).The higher the oscillation frequency, the shorter the wavelength.
radio waves of all ranges are widely used in industry, science and technology - with the heat treatment of metals, wood and other materials in broadcasting and communications (HF), for heating and welding dielectrics in radio, television, physiotherapy (UHF).Especially widely used as electromagnetic waves of the microwave - in radar, radiometeorology, astronomy, navigation, space exploration, nuclear physics, medicine and other
Maximum permissible exposure levels:. A) The electric field component in the HF range - 20 V / m,UHF - 5 V / m;b) a magnetic component in the frequency rang
biological activity inherent in any range of the airwaves.The most active have a microwave (MW), especially decimeter.Millimeter waves are absorbed by the skin and acting on receptors, have a reflex effect on the body.Decimeter penetrating to a depth of 10-15 cm, can act directly on internal organs.Apparently, the same is true of the wave of the UHF band.
mechanism of action of radio waves is complex.At high intensities, they give the thermal effect.However, radio waves and have a non-thermal effect (at 10 mW / cm2 visible thermal effect is absent).
should be emphasized that in the conditions of production work typically exposed to low-intensity radio frequency EMF.Changes in the body under the influence of low-intensity radio waves of various ranges have the same orientation.Experimental data indicate a particular sensitivity of the nervous system, then infarction, degenerative changes in the testes, inhibition of reproduction processes, the lag in the development of animal, the change in immuno-biological reactions.The most pronounced changes observed under the action of microwaves (especially in the centimeter range), then the VHF and HF.
Repeated exposure to EMF produce a cumulative effect.Microwaves exhibit maladaptive action - violate previously acquired resistance to various adverse factors that distort some important adaptive reactions, such as cause suppression of erythropoiesis (instead of erythrocytosis) in the conditions of high altitude hypoxia.
Clinic acute lesions of the body
acute injury may occur during accidents or flagrant violation of safety regulations.Described expressed vegetative-vascular disorders, diencephalic crises, tachycardia, seizures, weakness, anxiety, recurrent epistaxis, leukocytosis.
Clinic chronic exposure to electromagnetic waves
Early signs - fatigue, irritability, headaches, disturbed sleep.Later - pain in the heart, sometimes the type of angina, palpitations;loss of appetite.Blur expressed asthenovegetative syndrome with vascular component - hypotension, bradycardia, blurred degenerative changes of the myocardium with impaired contractility of its functions;violation of intracardiac conduction.
In more severe cases - strengthening of complaints;nightmares obsession.Cardiopsychoneurosis - lability of pulse tendency to hypertension and vasospastic reactions - narrowing of the retinal arteries.Deeper degenerative changes of the myocardium.Possible violation of the coronary circulation.Paroxysmal state by diencephalic type - paroxysmal headaches, chills, squeezing pain in the heart, severe weakness, often fever and high blood pressure rise.Dyskinesia intestine, liver function disorders.
Trophic and endocrine disorders - weight loss, hair loss, brittle nails, hyperthyroidism, more commonly in women.Impotence.Instability indices of blood - moderate reticulocytosis, leukocytosis or leukopenia, lymphocytosis, lymphopenia less, monocytosis, stab shift, blurred thrombocytopenia.Increasing the level of histamine and blood sugar.
Violations mediator metabolism - decrease the level of cholinesterase in the blood, violation of excretion of catecholamines.These changes are already evident in the early stages of the disease.There is evidence that breastfeeding mothers, a decrease lactation.
Under the influence of the microwave field can develop cataracts.The most dangerous 12-centimeter waves and work in pulsed mode.Parallelism between the development of cataracts and other signs of the impact of microwaves on the body is not present.
Clinical features of chronic exposure to low-intensity radio frequency EMF are more pronounced under the influence of the microwave field.
The irradiation meter waves of low intensity more typical neurasthenic syndrome and a tendency to hypertension.Women are more sensitive to the effects of microwave.There are dynamic monitoring, showing the possibility of development in the future hypertension, in some cases - of cerebral and coronary circulation.There are indications of a higher incidence of radar workers.
The clinical picture are the following syndromes: vegetative, asthenovegetative, angiodistonichesky and diencephalic.Depending on the severity of the clinical picture distinguish 3 stages: initial, moderately expressed and expressed.The initial stage - compensated, characterized by mild asthenia or weakly expressed vegetative syndrome.The next stage is characterized by the more pronounced vegetoastenicheskim "syndrome.Severe stage appears angiodistonicheskimi or diencephalic disorders.
Treatment - syndromic.The use of sedatives, hypnotics, bracing means.Therapeutic exercise, physiotherapy, hydrotherapy.Spa treatment.
disability If you have early signs of the disease is carried out active treatment, sometimes on the job.Outpatient treatment, compliance with individual prevention measures usually give a good effect, and the patient's ability to work is not impaired.In some, cases may need to provide medical certificates for a period of 1-2 months
In more severe manifestations of disease (stage II disease) - recommended treatment of the patient in hospital followed by transfer, to work not related to EMF exposure to radio frequency2 months.
In the absence of the therapeutic effect, as well as the more severe forms of the disease (III stage of cataract) after appropriate treatment of permanent employment - translation, to other work not related to.radio frequency EMF exposure and other occupational hazards.Women during pregnancy and lactation is recommended to transfer to another job.
systematic control over the level of radio emission.Rational distribution equipment.sources of radiation shielding.Personal protective equipment - special protective clothing, safety goggles (with irradiation intensity of greater than 0.1 mW / cm2).Systematic gymnastics.Preliminary and periodic medical examinations.