Poisoning oils and synthetic coolant mixture ( coolant )
Occupational Diseases / / April 29, 2016
oil, synthetic lubricants and cutting fluids or a mixture (coolant) are widely used in the industry (and mechanical, Forging and other shops for the lubrication and cooling of rubbing metal parts).
Petroleum oils - high-viscous liquid yellowish-brown color.The major components are aliphatic hydrocarbon oils, naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons with an admixture of oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen derivatives.For specific technical properties in petroleum oils are often added various additives such as polyisobutylene, compounds of iron, copper, chlorine, sulfur, phosphorus and others.
Most synthetic lubricating oil (turbine, automotive, compressor, motor, industrial, etc.) Is obtainedby polymerizing olefins such as ethylene, propylene.In
coolants include mineral oils and emulsifiers sodium salts of naphthenic acids (asidol).Available emulsions and pastes.The basis is the coolant are soluble - colloids and organic acids soaps in mineral oils, water giving stable emulsions or alcohol.
In operation lathes lubricants and coolants are heated (up to 500-700 ° C) and the air of the working area allocated mists oils, hydrocarbon vapors, aldehyde, carbon monoxide and other toxic substances.Toxic effects
lubricants may occur mainly in pure oil getting to the open areas of the body after prolonged use in clothes soaked in oil, as well as by inhalation of mist.Toxicity lubricating oil increases with increasing temperature boiling oil fractions, with the increase of the acidity and increase in number in their composition aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and sulfur compound.
oil and cooling the mixture in the form of aerosols (MPC for oil mist - 5mg / m3) can have a resorptive effect, getting into the body through the respiratory system and also affect the latter.Thus the greatest potential hazard are lubricating oil containing in its structure volatile hydrocarbons (gasoline, benzene, etc.) Or sulfur compounds.
described acute poisoning while cleaning tanks out of petroleum oils and oils from the aerosol cooling worked in the room at a high temperature.Symptoms of poisoning are similar to those observed in acute poisoning with gasoline.
Workers mechanical (turners, millers, grinders) and other departments in contact with the coolant are often observed chronic hypertrophic, at least - atrophic rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis.Perhaps the development of pulmonary fibrosis.Characterized by vegetative-vascular disorders with predominant violation of the peripheral circulation by type angiospastic syndrome resembling Raynaud's syndrome and vegetative polyneuritis.There is information about the possibility of lipoid pneumonia and respiratory tract tumors in those long inhaling aerosols and vapors of different petroleum oils.In most cases, lipoid pneumonia are asymptomatic.
Petroleum oils and cooling the mixture have a degreasing action on the skin and contribute to clogging of its pores.This gives rise to various skin diseases (dermatitis, eczema, folliculitis, acne oil);may develop sensitization to chemical agents used as additives
Some oils can cause keratoderma, warty growths, papillomas, skin cancer.
Prolonged contact with the vapors of mineral oils and emulsions may contribute to cancer of the lungs and bronchial and urinary bladder.
There may be damage to the skin (especially hands) lubricating oils, gets under the skin during a test under high pressure oil lines, diesel engines and so on. In this case, the oil penetrates the skin and causes the development of edema in the subcutaneous tissue.Sharp pain and swelling are kept 8-10 days.
Individuals in contact with the oil sludge, observed photodermatosis and diseases such as melanosis: the pigmentation of the skin open and exposed to friction parts of the body, enhanced follicular keratinization, atrophy;phenomena such as melanosis Riehl (dark red and brown spots, sometimes merging), follicular keratoses on the arms, torso, and along the edge of the scalp are found among those working with oil spray.
Depending on the nature of the disease, the presence of an allergic component, the resistance of the disease and its relapse - temporary or permanent suspension from work.
important for the prevention of skin diseases is skin care before and after work, the correct use of protective paste and washout means.Recommended various protective hydrophilic ointments and pastes, the paste film forming hydrophilic, hydrophobic ointments, pastes, films, silicone cream.
In order to reduce skin alkalinization when working with emulsion is recommended to wash the hands of a weak solution of hydrochloric acid during work breaks.After the end of the shift - washing hands with water and lubricate the skin ointments (cream with vitamins A, E, etc.).To remove oil and other contaminants are used so-called industrial cleaners.Observance of personal hygiene (washing in the shower, the frequent change of work clothes and so on. D.).Prevention and treatment of micro traumas.
When working in an atmosphere contaminated with high concentrations of vapor or aerosol lubricants, it is necessary to use masks.
should not be allowed to the persons suffering from any skin diseases.